"And sometimes he's so nameless"

Scandinavian LARP/Freeform in England – A New Approach?

OK this post is about one of my hobbies, games, and more specifically live action roleplaying games and Freeforms. I’ll return to my usual subjects soon I expect, though my blog is always a bit of a hodge podge of whatever is interesting me today. If you are interested enough to read on, I must say I’m not really going to explain Freeforms and LARPS except to briefly say they are games in which you normally take on a character and try and solve a plot or scheme your way to a mystery, while dressing up and acting with other players, There is a very useful page here if you want to learn more.

The UK freeforms scene maintains an active mailing list community, and there is also an annual dedicated convention called Consequences in November (which I heartily recommend)  where many games of this type are run, though they also occur at other UK RPG conventions.  Freeform seems to have arisen out of tabletop roleplaying games  in various countries and at various times, and the history of the genre is both complex and contentious, but the UK Freeforms community have determined a particular style and tone of game, though with cross-pollination with US based freeforms *where the form is often called Theatre Style Gaming).

Today however I’m going to talk a little about Scandinavian LARP, which has evolved its own distinctive styles and emphases. I’m in the unhappy position of knowing almost nothing about “Nordic LARP” despite being a Dane living in England – almost all of my life has been in the UK, so I really can claim no special knowledge, and absolutely zero practical experience. Luckily my Danish name and occasional mutterings about Scandinavia obviously gave long time LARP writer Nathan Hook the wrong idea, and he invited me to a very small event to explore Scandinavian LARP ideas in Bristol a few weeks back. It was a very exclusive event – on the day I was able to attend, there were only four of us present, including Nathan!emsworth

I have only played two of Nathan’s games before – a short and excellent little scenario called “And Not To Yield…” he ran at Grand Tribunal the Ars Magica Convention many years back now, which I enjoyed immensely, and an earlier Ars Magica Tribunal based game in Bristol which I think it only fair to say I did not, sometime around the turn of the Millennium. I took a lot more form the game I did not enjoy as much though: mainly my conviction that Tribunals are very dull settings for Ars Magica adventures, and that in turn led to me experimenting after a couple of tries at running Tribunal based freeforms (basically big meetings of wizards)  in doing something different, which I finally managed effectively with my “Puck’s Dell” freeform.

I don’t know Nathan well, despite the fact we only live fifty miles apart, but I did buy and read through his first book on Psychodramatic roleplay, The Green Book. I was actually quite surprised by it: whereas “And Not To Yield” is for as I recall seven characters and a GM (referee), most of the scenarios in The Green Book are I think best suited to 2-4 players. I normally write freeforms which feature between 15 and 30 characters, though I have written a few for ten or less players over the years, and modern classics of the genre like Sword Day and The Linfarn Run  have shown small freeforms can be extremely exciting, engaging and immersive. My earliest LARPS (1985-2000) were not freeforms, they took place over a weekend with a whole county often used, a dozen or more locations and up to 24 non-player characters and were Cthulhu Live style games, which drew heavily on RPG motifs – they only had 5 or 6 players, and while Fest style larping nowadays often seems to involve a thousand people in a field, I am now personally exploring writing my first Freeform for 30 – 40 players (more on that later).

So I have played a wide variety of LARPS (never been to a Fest Larp like Maelstrom or Empire though). I play almost entirely freeforms nowadays, and know little about what is happening in the UK scene outside of freeforming – though there is a handy calendar here.

I actually know almost nothing about Nordic Larp, apart from the fact it is very diverse as well. Years ago I read the Turku Manifesto, a document that emerged from Finnish larp/rpg – and almost everyone I knew who read it was outraged by it. This actually made me smile – I am as some of you will know a great admirer of Marinetti’s Futurist Manifesto, and the whole point of an artistic manifesto is to make a bold hyperbolic statement and spark controversy, discussion and reaction. Turku did this, but by the early 2000’s rumours were emerging of sex, drugs, mechanical dragons and girl-whipping dwarf-baiting orgies of Bacchanalian debauchery being spawned in Scandinavia with incredible budgets and incredible pretension in the name of Art and LARP. I have no idea if any of that was actually true, but it sounded like I should return home and take a look!

Unfortunately in my current situation I am about as likely to make it back to Denmark any time soon as I am to the moon; for more than a decade now I have planned to go and see Knudepunkt  (or Solmukohta, Knutepunkt, Knutpunkt, depending on which country it is held in that year) and become debauched, depraved and … sorry, explore new perspectives in LARP. I was vaguely aware as I say that Nathan Hook regularly attended for the last decade or more the Scandinavian con, but I don’t actually know Nathan all that well, and I would need some money to make it. So every year it has been put off, and maybe one day I will go. My morbid fear of flying meaning I insist on taking the Harwich to Esbjerg ferry will not help either – DFDS, no matter how much I love it, is not cheap.

Knudepunkt is a very large Scandinavian freeform/rpg event that has been pushing boundaries, exploring game theory and having all kinds of fun events run at it since I believe 1997. It’s important enough to have its own Wikipedia article, something Consequences probably should have, and the impressive list of books and publications there will tell you far more about Nordic LARP than someone as ignorant as me ever can. There is also the splendid sounding Fastaval, about which I know even less!

Back to Bristol

Let’s return to the main plot. So a few weeks ago I had a quick trip to Bristol, to learn more about freeforms influenced by one particular form (some might say “brand” of Nordic LARP) that Nathan is interested in: the Jeepform. I am not Jeep — I know nobody in the Jeep, and I make no claim to  have more than a very cursory idea of what the Jeepform is, gleaned from reading the webpages.

I noticed when Nathan talked about the people involved that day he did not identify any of us, so I won’t either. (This was not because of utter depravity – in that respect alone I was disappointed!) Suffice to say there was Nathan, I, and two more charming folks, one chap and one lady, both of whom had far far more experience than I of these things and who had attended Nordic Larp events. I get the impression Nordic Larp is more youthful than most English Larp, and less an umiddle aged & middle class pursuit than it is here in the Freeforms community. That may be an unfair judgement of both communities though, and certainly there are exceptions all over. The uK Freeforms community have all sorts from diverse backgrounds, but our manners are quintessentially English I feel, and our outlook rather conservative with a small ‘c’. I was a bit worried I might be drugged, emotionally scarred and forced to sit through the Freeform equivalent of Derek Jarman’s Blue

One of the things that concerned me was the concept of “bleed”. 

Sure art should effect one, be transforming, invoke epiphanies, challenge values, and radically shift ones perspectives. It is why I find art uncomfortable but stimulating. I like to be challenged. I am however aware that I can be negatively effected by things, and upset, and that a movie or play can effect me for days: so I was really not sure about “bleed”. Surely of the boundaries between me and my character were blurred, and game entered life, then I was not playing a character, but being me? In the UK tradition good character roleplaying is often defined as being a completely seperate persona to your normal character, and the idea of letting the to carry over – anyway I may be misunderstanding bleed. Go look at the definition.

Also Nathan and I have both professionally been involved in working in therapy/counselling type settings (as practitioners, not clients) and I had a vision of something between Encounter or Rogerian therapy and Performing Arts Workshops – Psychodrama meets Art. I had strong reservations, because the UK emphasis is on a game as fun, not  a game as art or psychodrama.

Maybe because I’m crap at it (more on this in a while) none of this really came up at all. On arrival I listened to the others discuss the influence and scope of the Jeepform as one type of Nordic Larp for a while, and they made me in my utter ignorance very welcome. I mentally resolved one day to seek out the Jeep, and learn more. (As I say, I had read the We Go By Jeep site – I think my sole criteria other than an accident of Nationality for my invitation to Bristol by Nathan!)

Now for a quick summary of some of the things I learned. I had recently run a game with multiple players playing the same protagonist at different life stages – that seems to be a similar approach to some of what we did. Traditional ownership of characters was discarded, and in the first game we played the various discrete scenes saw me play the main protagonist (and everyone else play him too) and his Father, his ex-Wife’s solicitor, his mate down the pub, a Cafe owner, and a number of other roles.


There were no character sheets, and only the main protagonist who we all helped define was established before the game started, and that by us each contributing one theme — “wannabe musician”, “wants to be though wealthier than he is”, “lone parent”, and “social life based on online communities” were the defining traits we came up with. All other characters were improvised on the spot, invented as needed for play as we went in a fairly fluid dynamic.

The scenario, Black Dog, is about depression, which Nathan understands in terms of loss of self-identity. We each played Tony in three scenes (there was no GM), and played other people in his life in the other 9 scenes. Each scene was a snapshot of something assaulting his sense of identity, and challenging one of the above traits. We negotiated what they would be about before playing the scene out: there was far more “Out of Character” time than I am used to in a normal Freeform, where a unity of time & space is normal and a game proceeds in roughly real time, chronologically, and in usually only a single location or a few locations represented by one room. We were able to move backwards and forward in time, to explore the emotional impact of a particular scene, or how something came about. Tony could give voice to internal monologues so the others could see what he was thinking. In practice I think the events depicted took place in a short period of only a couple of years, and they were, perhaps unfortunately screamingly funny at times, despite involving bereavement, loss of custody over his child,  breakdown of his relationship, criminal charges, loss of his home, public humiliation and career collapse.

I say unfortunately because a response like this according to Nathan, where we found black humour in awful situations I see all too often in real life here, in the lives of my friends and community, is a very English (and perhaps US response). I don’t want to get in to stereotypical jokes about gloomy Scandinavians (if you want that see my earlier blog post on why ABBA was a goth band), Lars Von Trier, Ingmar Bergman or Lukas Moodysson – I am above such things – but I did suggest that perhaps us Brits, the English at least, use black humour as a defence mechanism. (See British TV Comedy for countless examples over the decades)  Making light of the awful prevents the horrible emotional scarring we might otherwise endure, so we put a brave face on it and develop a Blitz spirit of the blackest humour? Sure, we might not engage in the way Nathan thought others might, but one must  have a heart of stone to sit through all this tragedy without laughing! (And from my father and the other Danes I know, I think they would find it just as funny as any Brit). Besides, laughter is a very real emotional reaction to it all. 

So what did I think of the game? Very simple mechanic used to set up the scenes, enjoyable, and quite probable to act as a Trigger for all sorts of emotional catharsis or a truly horrible time. I really enjoyed this, one of the finest games I have played, but I can see it being the stuff of some players nightmares. With people you know well and trust, in a relaxed mood, it may be safer – for me playing it far from home in a fairly anxious state (I had just left a friend seriously ill in hospital)  with 2 complete strangers and the sinister Mr Hook made it all the more fun. I missed the second day when they played a game about Genetic Illnesses – perhaps just as well as that might have effected me more at that point – but Black Dog, which is in The Green Book 1 is a superb introduction to a very different style of freeform.  It did not change me as a person at all as far as I can see, except to open me up to new possibilities in Freeform, and how the Jeep approach can liberate us as authors to share the creative process and engage players in a different way.

My biggest complaint about Black Dog was it felt less like a game and more like a psychodrama improve workshop in places – yet actually no, it also felt like a game. To work, all the players have to throw away comfort, inhibitions and go for it I suspect – but I may be wrong. I don’t know yet!

The second scenario Crossed Roads was far more “game like”. Again we defined our roles – a young lady who had to make three difficult life decisions, and her three advisers, one of whom offered her advice based upon following her dreams and spiritual/aesthetic/artistic values, one sensible/pragmatic/prosaic values (the most disturbing line spoken by  another player in the game was “aborting your baby is the pragmatic & sensible option” I think, but a lot of this stuff was hard hitting) and the other player, who happened to be me in this scenario, had to offer advice based on the best for the lady. All the advisers had limited knowledge of the likely results of the decisions results in terms future outcomes which were assigned by cards.

The catch was she did not know which adviser was which (nor did we, the roles were assigned secretly) and had to make decisions based upon how we roleplayed out the scenes. The first scene (should she go to stage school or stay at home and get a job in a bank) defined the whole set up, and introduced various characters who while they did not appear were frequently referred to, like the unfortunate Aunt Doris). We say the protagonist leaving home at 18, pregnant in her mid-20’s, and deciding if to send her teenage son to stage school many years later. Ignoring my sensible advice, and indeed at times refusing to really tell me what the decision she faced actually was, but skirting around it in the way all children do when parental guidance is utterly unwelcome, her life was an unmitigated disaster, and superb dramatic performances by the lady and chap from London made this an immensely pleasurable and memorable game. It was absolutely first rate, and I would strongly recommend it to anyone, if they feel they can handle it.


We all have triggers that can deeply upset us, and you are I think it is supposed best to play through them and stay in character if they arise – I don’t know for sure, ask Nathan, or read the Green books, or look at the website of other Larp writers – but seriously, these games see designed to actually invoke these things that in other larps you might discretely write on the casting form you wish to avoid as themes at all costs. OK, it’s not GR – I’m not going to discuss that game here, because of the kind of attention it will provoke, so please discuss it elsewhere if you want to  – but both Black Dogs and Crossed Roads have the potential to I think explode and maybe damage some – which is after all a kind of psychodynamic exploration –  I seem to recall from an old Jefferson Airplane recording someone saying “there is not such thing as a bad trip”, and yeah, that may be the logic here. Dunno. I can’t imagine anyone who was there playing these games actually having an awful time, but they should not be tagged “Trigger Warning”, but “Trigger Invite”. It’s not  a matter of maturity, or being bad ass to play these – because the risks of emotional upset are insidious, and possibly unavoidable, and could apply to anyone.  I’m a deeply (over)sensitive person and I had a blast, but who knows? I can theoretically see that playing “Fat Man Down” or similar COULD upset me badly, though I doubt it.  Who knows? And besides, I might need to or want to be upset, deeply challenged and torn apart emotionally. That might be my idea of a good game. I don’t actually know yet!

OK, so I have probably made all this sound very risky. Far from it. Everything was negotiated out of character before scenes I think, and yet they still surprised me.  The games we played were a bit darker than most UK Freeforms  I guess, but the mechanisms used in storytelling, some of the ideas and mechanics, and the general ethos would certainly be worth adapting and exploring. I’m not actually a very radical and artistic kind of guy, far from it I’m a pretty staid academic, but I can see huge potential in experimenting with these new larp forms. They are certainly “darker” in a different way to the often to my mind juvenile horror/vampire tropes we do see in larps here  a bit: I know form working on it for yeas that psychological horror is hard to evoke in a game. Real world issues arise in these games, and I don’t know ultimately how far my exploration will go – a week before I went to Bristol I was voicing my grave reservations about trying Jeep inspired larp to Charlie Paull at GamesExpo, and I’m glad to be able to report I was very wrong, had a wonderful time, met a couple of fine new people and learned a huge amount: but still I tend to be cautious!

The Consequences

This November I am off to Consequences where I am running a large freeform called Something Wicked, assuming anyone signs up for it. It’s not in anyway influenced at the moment by the Jeep inspired or Nordic Larp games, but I will discuss it briefly at the end of this piece.

I have noticed with interest that What Happened in Blackpool  by Mo Holkar, Heidi Kaye, Cat Tobin, Alli Mawhinney, Traci Whitehead , all first rate UK Freeforms stalwarts and freeform authors is running, and this sounds very much in the style of the games I have been discussing and experimenting with here recently since my Bristol trip –

This is a character based game in which all the plot and action will come out of the first part of the session in which the game is set up. No pre-casting, no casting questionnaires, no advanced reading. The game will be generated using a guided workshop.

I’m really hoping to get to play in it in November. It does seem to me that there has been an explosion of interest in the last few months in various forms of Nordic Larp in the UK: I have watched the scene rather warily and read lots of theory over the years, but now many more people seem to be embracing the possibilities, and I am sure UK Freeforms will provide a very safe way to explore what is best in these games in a British context. I’ll wait and see what develops! It’s about 5 years since I played “To Yield…” in which Nathan introduced me to what I now realise were influences of Nordic Larp, but it has taken me this long to feel I can offer ideas myself which draw from these games without automatically making myself seem to be trying to foist avant garde risqué material (not really my style) on players.

Still this year I am going for something rather more traditional – Something Wicked. Something Wicked was inspired by a Cthulhu freeform I played in last year at Consequences, and which got me thinking about what I did and did not enjoy about it.  This has been carefully crafted since last November, and I’m really looking forward to when the Consequences website goes live and I can see if it gets enough players or not. Some ideas I have had to drop: one was the use of signature scents and perfumes or colognes for different characters, which has been ruled out because of the risk of triggering asthma, and Hugh and I have to carefully think through how to use theatrical minimalism for effective set dressing, yet still gibe the feel of a funfair. I have to work out out if  I can find a way to make candyfloss there, and toffee apples etc too. Can I use real flowers? I think fake ones will have to suffice, but flower girls need flowers!

The actual pitch is here –

Something Wicked; A Gothic Melodrama set in Old London Town

Something Wicked is a game about Mythic London – the London of Victorian, Edwardian and Georgian popular imagination.The funfair is filled with seductive secrets, painful passions and secret vices, along with a strange cast derived from the folklore of London. This is a world of Spring Heeled Jack, where Sweeney Todd runs the pie stand and Jonathan Wild has not let a trip to Tyburn end his thief taking career.This is the London that stirs as the sun sets in dusty attics, sending the beetles scurrying as strange denizens emerge from houses long left locked and apparently un-tenanted. This is a game about why the nightingale sings in Berkeley Square, and why the pearly queen and king must do the Lambeth Walk, and why the ravens never leave the Tower…

Everyone loves the Fair! There goes nice dashing Harry Flashman with his medical friend Watson — and there goes Carnacki, the famous ghost finder, talking to the famous courtesan Ouida! Wait — what was that strange shadow that scuttled after them? And what is that haunting melody the fairground music keeps returning to, surely not “Cousin Theresa and the Big Borzoi?” You will ask Clovis Sangril, once he has stopped arguing politics with Emmeline Pankhurst. Oh look, is that actually the Prince of Wales, walking out with a common flower-seller? You can be your ‘at it is!

Costume for any period from 1780-1914 and you won’t be out of place. This is London as seen through the Strawberry Gothic, so as bright coloured as the musical Oliver! or My Fair Lady!

The game is designed to be fast, sending you whirling, cascading, groping a dance through the fairground where encounters with beguiling strangers offer both strange rewards and exquisite dangers: where stories become truths, and where we all face the scalding blast of scented temptations of the city of dreadful delight as amoral stars gaze scornfully on our brief pleasures…

Author(s): Chris Jensen Romer
Game EMail: chrisjensenromer AT hotmail DOT com
Christian “CJ” Jensen Romer chrisjensenromer AT hotmail DOT com
Lead GM: Christian Jensen Romer
Organization: Cheltenham Freeforms
Game System: designed for game
Information for Players: Character sheets are 4-7 pages maximum, and mainly 2-3.We encourage players to frock to excess, and ignore actual historical exactitude to make bold statements. Strawberry Gothic mixes the Chivalric Middle Ages and Medieval Gothic with the Victorian. In our game add a dash of polka dot, bright colours and Baroque/dayglo punk and you have the correct sensibility.

Despite the strong emphasis on Sin and Virtue, all illicit liaisons are merely hinted at – no physical contact allowed in the game. Not in front of the servants, ma’am! However corsetry and lace, ribbon and boots,perfectly acceptable for either gender!

There will be no use of strobe lights or other known epilepsy hazards, though I do plan to use extensively coloured lights for theatrical minimalism. Background music will fade in and out at certain points, but briefly, to prevent causing hearing issues, and for actual plot reasons. I am happy to produce audio versions of character sheets, large print versions and with adequate notice and where possible translations for those not-comfortable with English, though the translations may be laughably bad given my poor language skills.

If you have questions do feel free to drop me a line or a comment!


All the best

cj x

Lazy Sunday Afternoon: Should We Still Observe the Sabbath?

Posted in Social commentary desecrated by Chris Jensen Romer on June 23, 2013

I don’t know how many people bother to read my blog, and the religious bit at the beginning of this piece might turn some people off immediately, but please stick with it if you can, skipping the bible verses if you want. It is not about religion. I’m actually thinking about what Sunday means to us, and if the shops should shut, and many associated matters. So please do have a quick look, and given it is something we all seem to feel strongly about one way or the other, express your opinion with a comment.

While wandering through Cheltenham this morning my thoughts turned, as they so often do in town, to the Reverend Frances Close. I called in to the 99p cafe for a cheap breakfast, while planning all the things I should do this week.  Half finished reviews to complete and post, a dozen writing commitments, things I NEED to do: all clustered in on this lazy Sunday afternoon.  (I almost wanted to ask Mrs Jones how’s her Bert’s lumbago?!)

I mused on how Dean Close would have disapproved, and thought – well I’m not doing any paid work today, so am I actually breaking the Sabbath?

If you are looking for Christian devotional ideas, or how to see Ozzy’s next tour, move on now. I’m reflecting on the larger meaning of the Sabbath, in my case as an Anglican Christian Sunday, and what it means to observe the Sabbath.  Do many of my friends even know what the Sabbath is? I’m going to quote the Bible quite a bit to explain what it means first, but please bear in mind this is not a Scripture lesson, and whether you are a Christian, Atheist or follower of another faith is not what I’m interested in: no conversion planned here, and if you are Jewish or Muslim you have your own traditions on these matters anyway. I’m mainly going to focus on what it could and should mean for a secular multi-cultural Britain – as you may have guessed it might all get a bit political by the end…

It all starts in Genesis, whatever view you take on that book. There we read –

Genesis Chapter 2.

And on the seventh day God ended His work which He had made; and He rested on the seventh day from all His work which He had made.

And God blessed the seventh day and sanctified it, because in it He had rested from all His work which God created and made.

So God rests. A very odd idea; theologically however we can assume that rest here is more than just recovering from six days of hectic work. The Sabbath is something more than mere respite from physical labour, a chance to recover from a hard week of the 9 to 5. I’m no expert on Biblical Hebrew (a rather colossal understatement, along the lines of “I’m no expert on American Football”), and I’m not going to go in to the theology of all this — just going to say our Sabbath is not about resting because our bosses have worked us in to the ground. Or it shouldn’t be.  Still perhaps for us mortals it is partly that – never forget the old motto “God gave us Sundays; the unions gave us the weekend”!

Now many of my friends would be horrified if I pointed out the were breaking one of the Ten Commandments (and others proud, and tick another box I expect) but the Sabbath is in there. Yep, really.

Exodus 20: 8-11.

“Remember the Sabbath day, to keep it holy. Six days you shall labour, and do all your work, but the seventh day is a Sabbath to the LORD your God. On it you shall not do any work, you, or your son, or your daughter, your male servant, or your female servant, or your livestock, or the sojourner who is within your gates. For in six days the LORD made Heaven and Earth, the sea, and all that is in them, and rested on the seventh day. Therefore the LORD blessed the Sabbath day and made it holy.


In the past in England the Sabbath was a big deal, at least in theory. It gave people one day off, and the right to some free time. It is an immensely liberating idea, and a fascinating one. You might be sent by the government to work in a bargain shop on a scheme for no pay for six days a week (or labour in a dark  satanic mill in 19th century Manchester, or slave over a keyboard writing RPG supplements, or whatever form of awful labour your boss imposes upon you) but one day a week is yours, to do what you want. And I really do think it means to do what you want, because if servants and “sojourners within our gates” get it, and they are probably not of your your religion,  it seems to apply to the whole community. On Sunday you rest. What exactly that means however is what I am thinking through right now.

Now the Ancient Hebrews took this very seriously, and so does the Bible –

Exodus 31.

”‘Observe the Sabbath, because it is holy to you. Anyone who desecrates it must be put to death; whoever does any work on that day must be cut off from his people. For six days, work is to be done, but the seventh day is a Sabbath of rest, holy to the LORD. Whoever does any work on the Sabbath day must be put to death.The Israelites are to observe the Sabbath, celebrating it for the generations to come as a lasting covenant. It will be a sign between me and the Israelites forever, for in six days the LORD made the heavens and the earth, and on the seventh day he abstained from work and rested’”

I’m really glad no one is actually putting to death doctors, nurses, shop staff and the ladies who served my breakfast for working this Sunday. I won’t go in to details here about how this changes, but some of you will know the stories of how David and his companions picked grain and ate it on the Sabbath, or how Jesus cured on the Sabbath, and his wise words on the matter. Instead I’ll just cite the following New Testament passage –

Colossians 2:16 -17

16 Therefore do not let anyone judge you by what you eat or drink, or with regard to a religious festival, a New Moon celebration or a Sabbath day. 17 These are a shadow of the things that were to come; the reality, however, is found in Christ.

Remember that verse, and enjoy your Sunday how you please.  This is NOT a Bible lesson despite all the quotes: if you want to know what the Church says, or the theological positions on it, try a priest, vicar or Wikipedia :D Now we’ve had the heavy stuff, it’s time for afternoon maniac ranting!

So what does Sunday mean to you? A very few of my friends go to Church, others go to garden centres, watch DVDs, play roleplaying or boardgames or just chill out. For many it is a family day: a time for the whole brood to gather and spend time together. Some people love Sundays, and many people I know hate them, mainly because everything they want to do on one of their two days off is deeply restricted because a lot of businesses, call centres and attractions are shut. They are not going to settle in for a day of devotional reading, or eat a hearty roast dinner with a gravy advert beaming family, they are going to sit on their own, be thoroughly bored, put out, and irritated that even in the 21st century a lot of things stop dead on Sunday. What if my mouse fails? Lucky that Wilko’s is open so I can finish this post!

Now Sundays for me as a child were even bleaker than those faced by people today. Until I was 25 (1994), pretty much everything as I recall was closed, barring hospitals, railway stations, ports and airports, chemists and the occasional newsagents.  At least that is how I recall it: and the Sunday Trading Laws were utterly ridiculous, the classic example often cited being one could legally buy a pornographic magazine on a Sunday, but not a Bible, and that Fish & Chip shops could open as long as they did not sell any fish. :D

In fact I’m old enough to remember Early Closing Day, Wednesday afternoons I think in Bury St. Edmunds, which was a midweek version of Sunday, an afternoon for prim shopgirls to go on saucy dates with jaunty clerks, don’t you know? All the shops shut, and discarded newspapers blew like tumbleweed through deserted streets. Oh nostalgia! It was pretty awful, but part of life then — I thought it always would be.


A ghastly business. Yet is there a secular case for observing Sunday? Today most of my friends as I often cynically note are NOT being worked to death – in reality the problem they face is finding enough hours paid work to pay their rents or mortgages, and earn a liveable wage. So surely it would be insane to place further restrictions on trading hours, especially as we live now in a 24/7 world, where everything rushes on at a frenetic pace. I have to link an xkcd cartoon here. :D

Well the Lord’s Day Observance Society still campaigns on the issue, from a Christian perspective.  If you actually have a religious belief that means you can not work in good conscience on Sundays, you are not protected by law and can it seems be fired.   I actually have a serious issues with this, as I would if the religious observance of any other faith was impeded by legislation.  Mr Justice Langstaff ruled that observing the Sabbath was not a “core component” of Christian belief. So the Ten Commandments are not core components of Christian belief? That is rather surprising news to me.  In fact in this case, where the health needs of others depended upon the lady working Sunday’s I think Langstaff could have argued that her Christian duty was to make herself available as required, using the healing on the Sabbath analogy, and I don’t object to the ruling in this circumstance particularly, but the precedent is certainly worrying. I was also not aware British Courts had jurisdiction over theological matters and what constitutes a core aspect of Christian belief, but now I know different! A chap who worked in a quarry was dismissed for refusing Sunday working. That is a nonsense, especially given the Flexible Working Time regulations. In Scotland, the The Sunday Working (Scotland) Act 2003 (c 18) gave Scottish workers the legal right to refuse to work Sundays – something the Sunday Trading Act 1994 supposedly guarantees English and Welsh workers?

I’m pretty hot on rights of conscience, as the liberal I am, but you may well disagree strongly. The question I put though is it good for families at least to have a day when everyone can gather together and not have to work, unless in a “reserved occupation” like pharmacy, medicine or essential services? Is it bad for couples to not have a single day they can count on to do things together, without the risk one of them may be expected to work?  Even the singles among my friend need some time to relax and play games with friends, but how easy is it to schedule sports or a long running Call of Cthulhu or Ars Magica campaign when half the players may suffer enforced absence? (You may subtly detect my personal biases here!) Should a secular society still respect the Sabbath?

I’m partly concerned that we have engaged in a large scale social experiment that is altering the complexion of British society without much in the way of understanding of the consequences. Does Sunday working lead to family breakdown, divorce, murder, dogs & cats living together and rains of frogs? I doubt it, but I don’t actually know. What I do know is we have given employers unprecedented power, it seems with hardly a squeak from the unions (with the honourable exception of shop workers union USDAW) .  When you sign up to the police, fire brigade, or like me many years ago nursing you know Sunday working is part of the deal. I guess the same is true for retail workers now.  Sundays may become a middle class privilege of office workers and the Scots.

Still with society changing rapidly, and may of us working far longer than ever before, answering emails on smart phones, teleconferencing at midnight and catching up on work at all kinds of odd hours (usually 3am in the morning it seems) perhaps the loss of “traditional Sundays” is no big deal, and for many of us we are just delighted we can buy sushi on a Sunday, rather than reverting to the bad old days of my childhood.  I don’t have any answer, just loads of questions. Can we compete with economies where Sundays are not observed if we suddenly decide to let people have that day off? And what about those who observe their religious day on another day, be it Wednesday for Wotanists, Thursday for Jupiter’s devotees or Saturday for Seventh Day Adventists and Jews? Why privilege Sunday rather than say Monday in a secular society?

When the 1994 Act came in USDAW achieved a concession – Sunday working should be purely voluntary. They also asked for premium pay for Sundays, something that historically was widely observed for those who had worked that day – time and a half, or even double pay. I know for a fact very few of my friends get that now, if they ever have, and in fact I recall one business I know pays normal time even on Easter and other bank holidays, or did a few years back, something I was appalled for. Yes it is necessary for some staff to work bank holidays, but surely they should be compensated better? Maybe not. What do you think? Whatever the case, both these rights seems to have been lost, and I need to go and read the Act to see what the legal framework actually says.

OK, so enough for today. Does blogging count as work? What does constitute work in a modern context? What do you think we should do about Sundays? Please, just this once, if you have read this far, do comment. I think people have strong opinions on this issue and I’m pretty open minded and would like to hear them. Until then, enjoy your Sunday.

CJ x

Libelling Sally Morgan: the Hitler Connection.

Posted in Debunking myths, Paranormal, Reviews and Past Events, Science by Chris Jensen Romer on June 20, 2013

OK, today Sally Morgan won a reported £125,000 damages from The Daily Mail in an out of court settlement. Those people who have said “The UK courts have endorsed psychic powerz!” are more out of touch than the wackiest woo-filled spoonbender — people the clue is in the “out of”!?! The settlement simply shows that what the Mail alleged about the facts on a certain occasion were untrue, or could not be shown to be true, and I suspect the actual bone of contention was the claim Sally wore an earpiece.  Now if you have no idea what any of this is about, firstly go read the  Guardian piece on the libel result. Then come back, and I’ll make it more interesting :)

Right, assuming you saw that, then you may wish to acquaint yourself with my first piece on the whole business here.  How Sally Met Infamy? 

The libel case appears directly related to the RTE radio broadcast and the accusations made on that day. Given it could have gone to court, and Sue and Dorrie could have testified, as I understand they made contact with Simon Singh – or did I get the wrong end of a Twitter stick here –  why did the Mail settle out of court?  I actually don’t get it at all, unless there was substantial doubt that the witnesses were correct and the earpiece ploy was in use. Maybe Stuart McKeown and Mick Skelly were willing to testify? I have been uncertain about the claims since the start, and have expressed my reasons for caution.  I’m not sure if we ever get tot the bottom of this now, and I am no closer to believing Sally is psychic, but not much more convinced than I was she is a conscious fraud either. I wish she would just do some actual tests: not Randi’s challenge, I mean something with Tricia Robertson and PRISM or the SPR.

So far I have not really libelled Sally Morgan, and the truth is I have no intention of doing so, but now Hitler enters our story, along with Derek Acorah (OK, not physically, though “Hitler, Acorah, and Morgan walked in to a bar…” could be the start of the second most unfunny joke in history. In 1939 Hitler could have saved us from the endless pain of the most unfunny joke in history.  And he tried, he tried.

Now physical humour can be repetitive.

That is still mildly amusing: however this isn’t. Last week Derek Acorah cancelled a show in a Scottish theatre, and rescheduled the venue, and the management put out the most tired, most unfunny joke I know “Psychic cancels show owing to unforeseen circumstances”.  Today pretty much every paper has had some “should have seen it coming” psychic joke, as have half the users on Twitter – the half not too busy frothing over Bieber to know Sally Morgan exists.

I hear a lot of righteous cant about sick psychics preying on the bereaved: folks you are missing the real problem. If only these folks would turn some of that indignant anger to hunting down people writing shite headlines like this with “seen it coming… psychic” and dealing with them as they deserve! These are villains who are fully deserving of adding to the sum total of bereavement by being hastily despatched. “Kill them all: Acorah conjure up his own!” to update Arnaud de Amaury’s famous words.

Why is this joke so bad? Because psychics are not mediums, (unless like Acorah they call themselves “psychic mediums”) and purported mediums like Sally Morgan are not supposed to be able to predict the future.

And that bit is actually Hitler’s fault….


In September 1939 Spiritualist circles all over Britain and America were predicting that despite the growing international crisis, war would be averted, and Hitler would back down. And guess what? He did, and a golden age of peace— oh no, sorry he invaded Poland and France and England promptly declared war plunging us in to World War 2.

This led to a bit of a theological crisis for Spiritualism. The spirits had spoken, at length, in detail, about “peace in our time”. They had been shown to be completely wrong, as wicked old Hitler had carried on exactly as he wanted and ignored their prophecies. In the UK both Two Worlds and Psychic News debated the issue, and eventually a new doctrine came forth – that Spirit has no certain knowledge of the future. So mediums are not fortune tellers, and are not able to predict what will happen to you.

Now one day I will write up a little history of Spiritualism, Spiritism, the Christian Spiritualists and all the other groups and denominations. I’m not a spiritualist, I don’t approve of mediumship and I am generalising wildly, and I do  not know exactly what type of medium Sally Morgan is. Furthermore, a recent statement has started to revise things back a bit –

An inhabitant of the Spirit World can, to a degree, predict future events with greater or less accuracy, according to conditions. This is done by reasoning based on observation of past and present conditions and events, and is more accurate than is the same process as used by us, because the Spirit reasoner is not hampered by a physical body, nor by the conventional and set ideas that go with the limitations of such a body — National Association of Spiritualist Churches

So they can’t actually see the future, just make a better guess than us, based on current conditions. That is really not very exciting, but it is  a lot further than some late C20th mediums would go.

So in short:  these Mediums and “Psychics” are not claiming to predict the future, or if they are they are not “orthodox” Spiritualists, and this “did not see it coming joke” deserves to die. No court has found psychics genuine, and for the first time ever I have seen the excellent Ben Goldacre talking utter shite – see Hayley’s excellent blog for the details.

Finally a little whine. The people talking about Sally Morgan on Twitter are generally not, with the obvious exceptions of Prof Chris French or Ciaran  O’Keeffe (or Tricia Robertson if she uses Twitter) knowledgeable about testing psychics. They do  not know the literature, have never read Robertson & Roy, and certainly have no idea of the wider issues. They don’t invoke Flew or Braude against personal survival of death – they say “it can’t happen because it’s rubbish”. This strikes me as the most dangerous fundamentalism of them all – when individuals decide all of their own unexamined beliefs are simply true, and use that naive world-view as a way to just say Sally is a fraud. I’m not convinced by her, but you need to do a lot better than this. Sure I’m an arrogant elitist tosspot who wants you to read books, do experiments and test and critically examine claims. I’m a real wanker in your eyes I’m sure to insult your fond fundamentalism like this  – yet I am also a real sceptic. If you are going to be a champion of science, rationality and warrior against woo take the time and effort to learn the facts and major issues in the field. Otherwise you are just another frothing fundie, albeit from a denomination of just one! So go read up a bit on all the issues. Here is a good place to start – Jensen & Cardena testing a professional medium (who failed the test) — great bibliography, free access. http://ejp.wyrdwise.com/EJP%20v24-1.pdf

And please, stop getting so angry about Sally Morgan, :D I’ll discuss why in a future post. It is not like it will make much difference for reasons I discussed last year. :)

Anyway life is too short to get angry about this. Have a great evening!

cj x

Benefiting Society: Why We Need More Welfare not Less?

Posted in Social commentary desecrated, Uninteresting to others whitterings about my life by Chris Jensen Romer on May 31, 2013

Almost thirty years ago I sat on a sunny afternoon, not unlike this one, in a classroom. Miss Clarke’s Geography Lesson: I was probably paying little attention, doodling dragons and thinking about my next game, but who knows? I recall one thing she said, one thing that stood out, in all those years of Plate Tectonics, Population Growth, Rainfall patterns and Economic Hinterlands. “In the future, when you are forty, most people will work only three days a week, and the biggest problem we will face is to how to manage our increased leisure time.” Her words struck me forcefully: this was the kind of problem I could get interested in!


Dad was always his own boss: I don’t think he ever wanted to work for anyone else, or could have. Sure he would subcontract on other building sites from time to time, but mainly he worked as a small independent builder, with a handful of employees. However him and mum worked long, hard hours, and I knew it wore them out. Five days a week they would go off to work, and work hard, but they seemed to enjoy it. I asked them about Miss Clarke’s prediction, and they both looked glum. They thought “increased leisure time” might well equate to mass unemployment. They are old style socialist, to whom a “fair days work for a fair days pay” was a maxim, but they believed in full employment as an ideal, and they believed in “jobs for life” culture I think. They still do, actually. They regard having a job as a blessing not a curse, something that lets you better yourself, something that gives you both money and self-respect

A strong principle I adhere to is that in prosperous societies like ours where malnutrition, slum housing and desperate absolute poverty are FAR less common than sixty years ago, the biggest problem with having no job, no money and no credit is not starvation — few people will die of that with the NHS – but lack  of opportunity. It’s simple: having money gives you options in a capitalist society, it lets you increase your choices, and responsibility. The poorest elements, and I have lived there in the past, make few choices. The Benefits Agency might pay your rent, and give you enough money to live, but your choices dwindle to lesser of two evils all too often – do I pay the gas bill, the water bill or the electric bill this month? Do I maintain an internet connection in the hope of finding a new contract, or switch it off and use the money to buy a second-hand suit jacket from OXFAM and pair of Primark trousers to match, in the hope I will get that job on Friday’s interview? Do I buy a ream of A4 for the printer, or do I spend that cash on  a packet of razors or cheap haircut? Such paltry decisions are actually gratifying: you retain some tiny amount of free will, even in adversity.

Once you take your income up to my current level, the choices become MUCH wider. Your diet is no longer a sack of potatoes and twelve cans of tuna fish to last for a while, with a loaf of bread and some pasta for variation. I can choose where to shop, what to buy, whether to fund myself for a night class or buy some books. Get a good job, and you can make meaningful lifestyle choices. People used to talk about affording to get married, saving up to buy a home: they had disposable income that covered the basics, so money gave them choices. Jobs are good, proper jobs though, jobs that let you afford to live and make choices.

I was chatting last night to a fellow I know, who does work in my ward here, which is one of the twenty most deprived council wards in England in terms of absolute poverty and social deprivation. Yes really, it actually is; I live in the VERY nice part (by comparison) of it, but we have stark miserable levels of deprivation in absolute not relative terms in a couple of our wards in the borough. He was greatly unsure what could be done to help the community he serves and loves, and we got to the issue of aspiration, and the fact no matter how much one tries a lot of people don’t want to get out of the cycle of benefit dependency and poverty that follows.

I agree with him: they don’t. And that is because they are rational. It is s a tremendous risk, and a dangerous one. You may starve in the month before you are paid, you may get sacked and not be able to claim benefits for six weeks to six months. And you know what? The very poor are risk averse, because they have no savings, and no fall back plan.  Well at least not these days…Image

Firstly, I am forty now, forty three in fact; Mrs Clarke was wrong! The marvellous 3 day week we face is actually because an awful lot of people can only get part time work. Work, well paid decent work, has become concentrated in the hands of, well still a majority I guess, but it’s not evenly distributed. Self Employment and start ups appeal at times like this, because you can work as much as you want. For many of my friends, they are not trying to get better pay or conditions, but more working hours, so they can make ends meet.  Still an awful lot of people I know are desperate to work. So why do I say some want to remain dependent on benefits, and rationally so?

Well there are people in our society who for all kinds of reasons, from caring for dependants, including children, the sick, the elderly and the vulnerable, can’t realistically work. There are people who can’t for plenty of other reasons, including a tiny percentage who have severe personality issues, or just while lovely are not bright at all and might endanger themselves or others, and who a decent society will recognise as needing help. There are those who are ill, those who mentally handicapped, those who lack basic skills, those who have background issues that make it hard for them to “fit in” in many jobs (Ex-Cambridge Professors of Classics, former child Movie Stars and folks who have spent many years in mental institutions  for example are unlikely to be employed by many companies). Those people need a just and fair benefits system, and specialist help. I think few would deny them that?

What interests me more is those who dare not leave the benefits system, and the many who do leave the benefits system and take work, despite being far worse off through it.  “Better Off In Work” the slogans say: they lie. Sure, if you have 40 hours a week, at minimum wage, you will be significantly better off I guess, providing you are lucky enough to live somewhere where your rents are not ludicrous. Here that will mean you will earn enough to pay rent on a flat, which will be about 45% of your income, or 55% – 60% after tax and NI I think. Pay Council Tax, and maybe 65-70% of your earnings have gone on housing, and you can start working on bills and food. Given many people are mortgaged at that kind of level (though for most home-owners remember paying a mortgage is much cheaper than paying rent for an equivalent property) that is fair enough. On 40 hours a week you get those options I talk about, and you can start to plan your life, rather than drifting from crisis to crisis and making worst-case decisions if you make decisions at all.

However, this is based on forty hours, for an honest reliable employer. Unfortunately there are often potential employers who fall in neither category: the work is part-time, or you don’t earn what you signed up for. and I am seeing more and more of this, sadly. A lot of people are doing a few shifts a week – one friend has a “zero hours contract”, and is no better off than casual labourers throughout history, waiting for the call from his employers to days they have a couple of shifts for him. At least contractors like me are responsible for finding/making/negotiating their income sources – he has all the disadvantages of both employment and unemployment rolled together. Get more than 16 hours work, he must sign off, then sign on again losing a few days JSA – get no work, and then he has once or twice has his benefits stopped by the Benefits Decision agency while they “investigate” his claim and ask for pay slips for zero pounds zero pence his employer refuses to give him, leaving him desperate.

Another friend works arduous but part-time night shifts, and the fly by night company he works for have “mislaid” his pay slips – HMRC and the Benefits agency are not going to be sympathetic. Another has just started a decent job, but for the next 6 weeks has no money for food or rent, because she missed the payroll date while her company tries to sort her contract out and add her to the systems – and she has to pay almost £120 in bus fares just to get to her job in that period. Sure she will get paid well in July – but that is not helping right now. This looks like a better option for them right now…


OK, so successive governments have spouted rhetoric about making people “better off working”. What they fail to realise is that however thick they may think the welfare dependent are, and however enticing my notion that it is better to have work and thus money and choices than not, they can add up. If you hit 30 hours you can get Working Tax Credits, which are great, but unfortunately if you have between 16 hours (when you lose entitlement to JSA) and 29 hours, you are absolutely stuffed. We subsidize the retail  giants low wage Part-Time culture by Housing Benefit payments, something I have written about before, but we don’t seem to have found a system yet that actually ensures people are really better off working.

The easy way to address that is to cut benefits and make being on the dole so horrendous that any person would rather do any work than stay on it. This is the punitive approach to unemployment relief: the Victorian Workhouses adopted this approach, and it’s part of our history that people are uncomfortable with. We see few museums of the Poor Laws, few visitors centres in old Workhouses, because we are profoundly sensitive to the scale of human tragedy they represent.  We learn about them in History, but we don’t dwell on them. The closest many of us may ever come to thinking about them is the musical Oliver!


I contend that despite the popularity of the appeal to many of this approach, it is not only immoral, because some find themselves in this situation for reasons that are absolutely outside their control – laid off, genuinely unable to find work – and because some are vulnerable and unable to, like the sick and dying who cluttered the workhouses. No, the actual problem is  it represents a race to the bottom.

Employers exploit the system to use Housing Benefit to subsidize their workforces, but we can’t maintain our Housing prices if we allow rents to fall to a natural level, and when that happens we see a massive bust like 2008 when the sub-prime US market collapsed with global ramifications.   Punishing the poor, by reducing in real terms welfare payments like this administration might motivate individuals, but it does not increase the overall amount of work or desire of employers to pay. (It might possibly lead to deflation, but that is another story).

I believe, maybe wrongly, based on my reading over the years that about 10% working age unemployment is structurally necessary, perhaps even economically desirable, Randomly cutting off folk’s benefits, especially those who are declaring part-time work as has now happened to seven of my friends since Christmas (all working, all having no money for weeks) does not make people rush out and take part-time work if that work and associated travels costs will mean they can’t pay their rent or eat. People want jobs that will let them live comfortably, not £80 a month worse off than they were on benefits because the £40 improvement is gobbled up in commuting costs and they need to pay three times that to get to where the work is.

So what are the structural issues, and where might we see light at the end of the tunnel?

Four main problems and possibilities occur –

A. Second and third jobs are taxed at a much higher rate. There is no incentive to try to juggle two jobs, because you simply lose out and can’t make that pay. You need to make this work by reducing tax and NI for second jobs.

B. Rents are too high in relation to wages, because house prices and hence landlords’ mortgages were so high, and housing supply is restricted, so people can’t afford to get off H.B. Employers subsidize low pay part-time work by making their employees dependent on Housing Benefit and Council Tax relief, of which the majority of claimants of are working. We can’t do much about this but what Labour did – give P/T employees the same rights, pro rata, as F/T employees, to try to increase full-time employment.  You have to build more affordable housing – but realistically affordable, so social housing, not for profit housing.

C. You need to give people enough money to take risks: and that means increasing welfare payments to the point where people can afford to risk getting a job. Why? Because if you try the rewarding unemployment route,  wages must increase or people will leave their work en masse, and no one will do these P/T jobs that don’t pay the rent. Increasing wages is something economists are wary of, as driving inflation, but looking at deflationary economies and theory we know that wage inflation does stimulate demand and hence CAN lead to economic growth. As a Fiscal Stimulus increasing the level of welfare benefits till my friends would be genuinely able to live on benefits would force wages and real jobs of the full-time variety to become available, and see wages actually rise to a liveable standard as the workforce sees they have an option. People who want to work will be able to make something of themselves, and people who want to  claim dole and look after granny or paint pictures of sunsets can do just that, but the wages will at least rise to a level where one can pay the rent without state handouts. Secondly you need the unemployed to be able to save a little for the inevitable costs of starting work. Against our more vicious humans instincts, I think this is actually  better than punitive unemployment relief –

D. Finally, and most vitally, we need to pay HB and JSA for a full month after people take a job. If you start work tomorrow, and won’t be paid for 4 weeks minimum, you need to know you can pay your rent and buy food and pay the bus fare to work. People DO NOT always have that much money put away – any amount of the time on the dole will rapidly erode savings and any cash you have. Likewise, if you leave a job right now it is six weeks before we pay dole – an insane situation as so many people can’t afford to live that long with no income, and feed their kids, so they would rather not risk leaving a terrible low paid job that they can’t survive on than return to the security of the benefits, so they never risk taking a job. We need to pay people who get jobs money to set them up, and remove the penalty for leaving a job which is unrealistic in terms of your pay and conditions.

I’m no economist, I’ve never claimed to be an economist, and I may be talking nonsense. However my “work lies among the poor”, like the mother of one of Saki’s characters, and is have seen human misery up close. I know the system isn’t working, and I think that economic growth is only one aspect of the problems Britain faces. Perhaps Mrs Clark was right, and we should legislate for the three-day week, that quaint echo of 1970’s Britain, where people could not get work, and make it compulsory, like the leisure driven paradise she told me about that day. Until then, let’s reward people for working, and you can’t do that by punishing those on benefits – more welfare may mean more work, less welfare just perpetuates this endless spiral of misery.

cj x

UKGamesExpo 2013

OK, so I went to UKGamesExpo today, the board, card and rpg games convention in Birmingham, held at the NEC Hilton Metropole in Birmingham: first year in that location, ion previous years it has been held near Edgbaston as I recall. My friends Lorna and Dan gave me a lift up, and  was only there for about seven hours, but I must admit despite severe reservations, I had a wonderful time. It’s on tomorrow Sunday 26th May, and if you can I would encourage you to go, despite the £8 admission charge for a day ticket.

So why the reservations? I have not been for a few years, but last time I went I like now was short on cash. The nature of the event feels like a Trade Fair, and I guess it is in some ways our UK version of Essen.

I felt like time I went it was a great event, but I needed money to spend: all of the rpg and boardgames events seemed booked solid long in advance, and the event seemed more focussed on buying than playing. I am very happy to report that this year that was totally untrue – there was every opportunity to buy, a huge range of vendors, with only Mongoose notably absent — yet there was also a tremendous array of demo games on offer, and not all required you to have pre-booked.

It felt much more like a convention this year to me, with large numbers of delegates staying on site. £100 a night is beyond my budget this year, but hey, I think I would have liked to be there the whole three days.

A few notes — I did not buy much, though a cup of coffee set me back a fiver, and bar prices are similarly astronomical. By the time I arrived programmes had run out, and I did not realise the organisers had sensibly organised a wonderfully cheap and cheerful cafeteria for attendees in one room, where food can be bought (and soft drinks and coffee) at realistic prices :D  I should have read the website, where all this was explained, before setting off!

I took a few photos, but I am a truly lousy photographer and only had a phone. Still here we go…

Giant Pandemic Boardgame

Giant Pandemic Boardgame

OK, that was amazing! And they really tried to get me to play, and as Pandemic is a classic cooperative boardgame i VERY nearly did, only stopped by the need to find Wordplay Games who I had come specifically to look for. I stopped off to see Charlie and Alan Paull at Surprised Stare Games, makers of wonderful boardgames including of course Snowdonia, and after a long chat I went and talked to Larry Roznai, President of Mayfair Games, for at least an hour outside, and learned a lot about logistical and distribution questions. Really fascinating chap, I’m peeved I missed his seminars, and that of Angus Anbrrason from Chronicle City.

I did catch who I went to see, Graham Spearing of Wordplay Games; I’m interested after playing his Worlds of Wordplay game that I really like in writing some material for his new FATE based Age of Arthur game, and maybe now that will happen. Great bloke, and very, very welcoming and kind to spend so long talking to me. I’m very excited about Age of Arthur!

Then off to Pelgrane Land!


Pelgrane Press stand

I was able to pick up at last a copy of Trail of Cthulhu from the Pelgrane Press stand: so sanity blasting was this I was still shaking when I took the blurry photo of amorphous horrors above.  (At least said Amorphous Horror will have to wait till Consequences in November to punch me now! :) )

It was only in my closing minutes at the con that I discovered there was another huge demo hall I had somehow missed: I was twice horribly disorientated and confused by the layout of the building, and am sure I missed loads owing to the non-Euclidean weird angles – OK – my lack of a sense of direction.


Friendly con-goers!

Well apart from “find the cheap cafeteria” what else can I say? Well parking is free, it’s certainly worth the admission and I had a great time, so go play games!

oh yes: the UK GAMES EXPO AWARDS! No idea who won, presumably not announced till voting ends tomorrow, and I finally chose not to vote in most categories because I did not know all (or even most) of the games.

 The Nominations were:

BEST BOARD GAME: Aeroplanes (Mayfair); Escape (Queen); Exodus Proxima Centauri (NSKN Legendary); Fighting for Virginia (Nigel Lambert/Print, Play); Keyflower (Coiled Spring); Mice & Mystics (Plaid Hat); Road Rally USA (mayfair); Rome & Carthage (Grosso Modo Editions/Coiledspring); Snowdonia (Surprised Stare); String Railway (Asmodee); Urbania (Mayfair).

BEST RPG: Achtung Cthuhlu [Hero of the Sea/Three Kings] (Modiphius); Age of Arthur (Wordplay); Cold & Dark (Wicked World); Draconian Rhapsody (Ulisses Spiele/Chronicle City); Dungeon Slayers (Chronicle City); Eldritch Skies (Battlefield Press/ Chronicle City); Hellfrost: Land & Fire (Triple Ace); The Island of the Pirahnamen (Ulisses Spiele/Chronicle City); Shadows of Esteren (Agrate); Squadron UK (Simon Burley); Star Wars Edge of the Empire fantasy (Flight) Yggdrasil (Zerne Cercle Sarl/Cubicle 7).

Particularly great, especially in Brum to see Simon “Golden Heroes” Burley back in there! I can commend his work, and also Snowdonia and Age of Arthur, but I don’t know any of the other nominations, which probably explains why I did not vote in the end as a bit unfair to vote for the only games you know! If anyone is really interested i can outline the other nominations in Best Family Game, Best Miniatures Game, Best Strategic Card Game, Best General Board Game and Best Abstract Game categories.


EDIT: Since writing this Richard Denning, one of the organisers has offered us his fascinating perspective on the event. Well worth reading!

cj x

Watching Most Haunted: Series 3, Ep. 1 East Kirkby Airfield

Posted in Debunking myths, History, Paranormal, Uninteresting to others whitterings about my life by Chris Jensen Romer on May 25, 2013

This post was written in respectful memory of “LOUP GAROU”, long time poster on the Living TV Most Haunted  forum, and a fine teller of the chilling tale. We miss you mate…

It is perhaps ironic that despite having worked for several companies involved with Most Haunted, appeared on the show, and (as CJ.23) been for several years one of the most vocal commentators on the Most Haunted Forum (now sadly defunct) I actually watched very few episodes of the show at the time it was transmitted, or indeed subsequently. I used to joke this was because I lacked a ready supply of tranquilizers: in reality I actually lacked a TV set, and later I had a TV set but no cable. However when friends invited me to watch the show I usually found an excuse to be elsewhere, that much is true, and while I did watch the first two series eventually it was because Living TV were kind enough to send me the episodes so I could comment! :D

In this piece I am going to (after my rambling intro) look at one episode of Most Haunted: Series 3, episode 1, where the team visit East Kirkby airfield in Lincolnshire, a disused WW2 airbase now a museum.   I selected the episode at random form a pile of Most Haunted DVDs I acquired at a charity shop: watched it through and made a few rough notes as I went. Owing to pressure of time I will not be research extensively the airbase and history involved, but I will briefly summarise and provide links.  It would probably have made more sense if I had selected an episode I actually wrote a research brief for, and used that, but apart from the MHL episodes I worked on I don’t think such notes were very extensive, and it would arguably be unprofessional.

Still I can lay one myth to rest – it was often said by skeptics that everyone involved with MH,  even quite tangentially, signed masses of non-disclosure agreements and had gagging orders in their contracts. I never had a contract with either ANTIX or HanrahanMedia for anything I did, and signed no such paperwork. I am not aware, or at all convinced, that it existed. Given how vocal some of the actual stars of the show have been on leaving, I find it very unlikely. It is also noteworthy that other than the allegations levelled at Derek Acorah, no one involved seems to have claimed the majority of “phenomena” the team witnesses was faked, though everyone I have spoken to has a different opinion on who threw the spoon in the infamous Falstaff Centre episode. This matches my general belief that the majority of the crew (and the show blurs the usual talent/crew distinction in TV, so the whole crew pretty much are the stars here) , and in particular Yvette, responded naturally to what they believed to be happening.

My approach to psychical research differs quite a bit from the Most Haunted “vigil” model. I feel I am closer to David Taylor, Andrew Homer and others who take a long time and historical/investigative approach, rather than emphasising trying to witness the phenomena myself. However my time working for Richard Felix, and the twenty odd “MH style” ghost hunts I organised myself have given me a few insights in to how it works, and more importantly how it feels to be part of such an vigil based night.  I used to joke that this was all the commodification  of “legend tripping“, but hey, it was certainly more exciting than any show about my research would ever be. :D

I have in the past despite my seeming overwhelming cynicism, and arguments that Most Haunted may have seriously set back spontaneous case research in parapsychology,  also defended the show. I still think it was a brilliant creation, and Karl and Yvette pioneered not a single show, but a whole genre of reality TV programming. Also, I have argued that in some ways the much vilified Most Haunted represents something nearer to what actually occurs in ‘real world’ cases of haunting than the rather more austere accounts of apparitions in say the classic SPR literature. For now, however, let us turn from theoretical issues to an actual episode, and watch Most Haunted.  Obviously it is probably more interesting if you actually watch the episode as well: at the time of writing it is available in a number of parts on YouTube, with the first part here. You can find the other parts listed on that page. I don’t know if it is a legal version, and how long it will be up, and I in no way endorse copyright violation, but for a reviewer it is rather useful, and I think what follows will make more sense if you watch the episode.

TV.com provide a useful summary taken from the opening of the episode that introduces the location:

Work started on the construction of the airfield in 1942 and by the middle of 1943 East Kirkby’s runways were operational and 57 Squadron, equipped with Lancasters, arrived. During November 1943, 630 Squadron was formed and also remained at East Kirkby for the duration of the war. The number of servicemen and women stationed at East Kirkby soon exceeded the 2,000 level. East Kirkby’s aircraft suffered losses in the Berlin and Nuremberg raids, but its worst night was 21 June 1944 when 11 aircraft were lost in an attack. Towards the end of the war, in April 1945, a Lancaster caught fire while being bombed up, resulting in a huge explosion which set off further bombs. Four people were killed, six Lancasters totally destroyed, and a further fourteen damaged. In the post-war period, the airfield was used for trials and for a short time during the mid-1950s it was occupied by United States Air Force. Eventually closing in 1958, the RAF finally disposed of the site in 1970. In recent years due to the work of Fred and Harold Panton, East Kirkby is now home to the Lincolnshire Aviation Heritage Centre.

There is a short but useful wikipedia entry on the location as well.

OK, so what actually happens in the show?


…is the introduction, setting the scene. We are given the information above about the airfield, and of course there is a stress on the large number of planes and aircrews lost. Richard Felix clearly invokes the supposed link between death and tragedy and ghosts, repeatedly stressing the violent and horrific nature of the “passing” of the crews lost here. he refers to the supposed spooks as “unfortunate tormented souls”. The narrative is similar to that offered by Derek Acorah in the episode – ghosts are spirits of the dead, unable to pass over to the “other side”, unhappily earthbound by unresolved business.  I have spent so long on the SPR group theorists hypotheses about apparitions it actually came as a shock to me to realise that I used to think this was juts a normal common sense definition of what a spook is: a dead guy or gal, lingering in our world.  To be fair, having looked at the ideas of Gurney, Myers, Tyrell, Hart etc on telepathic projections, based upon the supposed evidence for telepathy, I’m actually not of the opinion those theories are better evidenced in any way than the one Derek and Richard favour. The “dead guys” hypothesis may actually have greater explanatory power than many of the parapsychological theories, and rests on assumptions that seem little greater to me than invoking ESP to account for spooks.

Anyway, now what could have been the most interesting bit of the show: Fred and David Panton briefly talk about their experiences. And here we have in a nutshell  my critique of Most Haunted –  Fred and David, the owners of the museum, clearly know the place inside out. Furthermore they have been there for many years — so we might expect them to have witnesses a great deal more “phenomena” than the MH team can hope to in one night, and furthermore to be able to discount those supposedly paranormal phenomena that are actually caused by unusual natural causes. Their testimony seems vital to me. We could dedicate the whole show to them explaining how and why the ghost stories developed, what they saw, where and when? All the other staff and visitors could be brought in. A cumulative picture of the evidence could be produced.

Most Haunted is not that kind of show. MH is about the crew having an adventure: about a vigil in a haunted location. The show takes place in a bubble of its own, with the events that have gone before merely providing a pretext and direction for what happens in tonight’s investigation. No wonder vigils are now the standard procedure for investigating spooks in Britain’s ghost hunting community, and so little effort and emphasis seems to be placed in to interviewing witnesses, recording and analysing testimony, and collecting supporting evidence. I think this is the single greatest weakness of MH: far more so than the use of psychics, or the questionable assumptions at times at play — it removes the ghost experience from human and historical experience, and renders it an isolated theme park thrill ride for one night only.

It also seems to me to  make little mathematical sense. 5 separate apparitional experiences would be enough, in a thirty year period, to give any place a good reputation for being haunted.  I make that roughly 2,190 to 1 therefore against anything major happening on the night the team are present. Of course it could be that events are far more common – but even at one a week it’s still 52 to 1 clearly. I may however be greatly exaggerating how rare these things are: wherever MH go, something seems to happen. (And it’s worth noting  Karl personally assured me he would do an episode where nothing at all happened if that was the case; in some cases in all fairness it comes very close! The inherent drama of the situation and the interaction between the team actually makes up for it well, so it could and did work.)

OK: so what actually happens? I tried to note down the phenomena

* figure believed to be deceased American airman seen walking toward the control tower.

* murmuring voices heard.

* telephones ring, despite being disconnected (Control Tower)

* green lights observed in control tower (from outside).

* Strange feeling of being watched.

We don’t get enough information to really say much about any of the above sadly. Was the figure seen at night or in the daytime? (My notes don’t say: the episode might). The one thing I did note was that the green lights were seen from a nearby caravan park, so I did for a moment wonder if they were in high summer and possibly fireflies, however unlikely that may be. Again, murmuring voice type noises MIGHT be caused by the wind hitting the hangars, and a low vibration. The telephones ringing however is beyond me, but there may be an explanation.

Actually many years ago while conducting an investigation at the Old Bell Hotel, Dursley, Gloucestershire, my colleague Derek and myself were both asleep in a room when we were woken by the phone ringing.  It was 3 or 4am, I forget which, but the time when a ghostly maid is said to have given visitors a wake up call through their door.  We got the phone – I answered it, and sure enough the phoneline was dead, and on examination the phone was disconnected at he wall (itself rather mysterious in a working hotel!).  Not sure what the cause was, but thought I’d mention it here.  Also rather amusing that back in those days we tried to sleep at night during an investigation rather than sit up and look for ghosts. :)

There follows an explanation about a couple of famous crashed in the rough district of the airfield. One was of a fighter plane that never made it back, the other of a B17 bomber that was refused permission to land despite being badly shot up, and eventually crashed near the runway killing all ten on board, having suffered a catastrophic malfunction or simply run out of fuel while circling in a holding pattern. The suggestion was the figure seen approaching the Control Tower as the pilot of the B17 off to “have it out” with the Control Tower staff.    The plane burned on impact, and Dave Panton gave his fascinating memories of the tragedy he witnessed.

The suggestion throughout the episode was that a mistake was made, and the plane SHOULD have been given permission to land.  The runway today is combined grass/tarmac at 950m, and the fact it was home to a bomber group suggest to me that in 1944 the runway could have landed a B-17 could have landed, but the runway now may be shorter than it was, given the length these planes needed to take off.  However RAF East Kirkby could handle big planes no problem — so that was not why it was denied permission to land.  I feel it more likely that other planes were taxiing, or on the runway at the time.

A B17 Flying Fortress: USAF image.

A B17 Flying Fortress: USAF image.

I tried to find out, quickly identifying the name of the plane, the names of all killed, and the date and location of the crash. Now I have a problem. I don’t want relatives to Google any of that, and find me talking about ghosts. It was nearly 70 years ago, but no I feel bad about the possibility. So instead, I shall explain briefly what I found – you can easily work it out for yourselves if you want to check.  One site says the pilot suffered engine problems on take off, and tried to land. He overshot the runway, was going round again to try a second time and crashed on the hillside. (Would have to be serious problems given these are multi engine planes, but perhaps a fire?)  Yet another site which appears more reliable says it crashed after sustaining damage over Germany on the return from a bombing raid on the Bullay railway bridge at Koblenz, and gives the Mission number. So we are no closer to establishing what happened, but the plane existed and crashed while trying to land.

This pretty much wraps up the first part of the show, where the setting is introduced. We see fragments of the wreckage of the B17 on display, and another small section of a fighter plane. We are told the pilot should have been on leave. Then it cuts to Phil Whyman who has apparently been taking baseline readings with an EMF meter, and checking out “the residual energy” of the location.  Phil was well aware by this time of my cynicism about EMF meters – we had talked about it several times, both in forums and in bars.  Still it was what he had to do, part of the format, I think introduced by Jason Karl in series 1.


One can say a great deal about the use of psychics in an investigation, and even more about Derek Acorah. I don’t intend to get too involved in these discussion, but in this episode Derek is much like in most. For many people this is probably the key part of the show, and what it does is to expand upon material already discussed, with Derek purporting to make contact with a number of spirit entities, and providing a number of names and facts that correspond with the historical record. IN the brief time I chose locations for the show I felt I had good reason to believe Derek could not know in advance the locations, but Ciaran O Keeffe has suggested a way round this; I am not going to concentrate on these issues here. One thing I think that is important is that Derek is filmed for a long period off time, and presumably edited for material that fits the correct framework, and I certainly do not believe that Karl and Yvette colluded in briefing Derek for reasons I am unable to discuss.  One could simply argue Derek could easily have said much that was wrong but not shown — I do  not believe that is the case however, for various reasons, notably that his hit rate does not decline in the live broadcasts.  I have discussed my thoughts on Derek’s mediumship after witnessing his stage show elsewhere, and will simply ignore the issue here for time reasons, concentrating on other aspects.

Firstly, I must return to ethics. As I noted above, there are very likely living loved ones of those deceased individuals purported to appear in the episode. For that reasons it is not my intention to name the individuals Derek mentions; and for that reason I am unable to do justice to any discussion of the accuracy or otherwise of Derek’s statements with regards to known historical fact. I ill say that Derek gives a number of names, and seems to be  accurate with those names, but also gives some curious names; curious in that they are not mentioned in the sources, or indeed known to the ANTIX research team, Richard Felix, and presumably the Pantons.

So does that actually add to the credibility of the psychic testimony, or are they simply wild guesses? There is nothing of the “I’m getting a P… Peter” extremely vagueness and generalised statements about Derek’s performance. He is either genuinely an astonishing psychic who talks to spirits, a complete fraud and actor, or has rather amazingly good ESP and actually picks garbled and occasionally wrong information from those around him.  I’ll let the reader decide: however these names that are mentioned but not confirmed fascinated me.  While most of the material fits in the framework of stories mentioned in “Act One”, there was some interesting additional material, including spirits watching over the work on a Lancaster bomber with one engine still to be repaired, something Derek noted as coming from “spirit” information.

However — one of the names Derek gives for a spirit, while of a real airman, was of one who actually we learn from Richard subsequently died only in 1989 in Canada. That spirit apparently only visits briefly to watch over things. Whether you regard this as a spectacular cock up or convincing proof of the nature of the afterlife will depend on how you feel about Derek Acorah. Another name given by Derek was certainly that of a real US airman killed after the war in a training accident in the USA, but as the fellow was well known it could be cryptomnesia: I was surprised Richard could not locate it, but then why would he? There is no connection with the UK!

Another interesting aspect is the identity of the apparition said to be seen walking towards the Control Tower. Act One frames this as related to the crew of the downed B17 denied permission to land. Here Derek creates an alternative scenario, where the ghostly pilot is associated with another famous crash the wreckage of which can be seen in the museum, and which is really quite moving. I have discovered the chap in questions relatives are alive, and are very happy it would seem with the Panton’s commemoration of the chaps death, but again I’m going to withhold the name.  Those interested can easily find that out from the websites linked above: Suffice to say  the plane recovered from a Fen in 1989 after forty years of lying there possibly had with it the pilots wallet (though the body was recovered at the time, and therefore it may have simply been collected then and donated when his Spitfire was discovered) , and it is clear from papers within he was not meant to fly that day, but cancelled his leave. Derek specifically mentions the wallet and leave being cancelled, before they are produced, clearly impressing Yvette.  He then ascribes the ghost approaching the control tower to this fellow, and says he was denied permission to land ran out of fuel and crashed.

Derek Acorah at East Kirkby

Derek Acorah at East Kirkby

Except.. this is the story normally ascribed to the B-17 pilot, whose identity is normally given to the ghost approaching the Control Tower. On one experiment under controlled conditions many years ago, a medium, Ms. Morven Alexander gave me a piece of historical information I believed to be wrong, which subsequently turned out to be correct. Could that be the case here? Have people been assigning the wrong identity to the spook? Did both pilots run out of fuel?

On the whole I do  not believe the B-17 did. It was either damaged on take off with an engine flame out and failed to perform an emergency landing, or suffered battle damage in the raid over Koblenz and crashed on landing. I have played the card game B17 Queen of the Sky enough to believe the latter is a realistic scenario, but why do  I not think there was  fuel on board? Because the older Panton recalls the terrific fire when it crashed, and immediately exploded. This does sound closer to the take off, circle and crash on second approach scenario, as the plane may well have been fully fuelled. However if it had a full bomb load I think things may have gone worse with the would be rescuers, so I can’t say for certain.

Did the spitfire crash through running out of fuel after being denied permission to land at East Kirkby? Nope. Thirty minutes in to a training flight out of RAF Digby the plane spun out of cloud, entered an inverted dive, and crashed in to the Fen. It could have been a mechanical fault, a stall, but I’m inclined to think it was spatial disorientation and vertigo, but I would really not pay heed to my thoughts (I have never flown a plane). Horrible, tragic business, watched by the two other RCAF Spitfires flying alongside. No question of fuel, no chance for an attempted landing at RAF East Kirkby, and no reason for an irate pilot to seek out the Control Tower. In fact the Spitfire did not fly from East Kirkby, but RCAF Digby, about ten miles or so away.  None of these facts that seem to throw doubt on Derek’s account were mentioned on the programme, whether because Richard did not know them or because of editing I can not say.



As usual, one can make allowances. I was quite confused about who Derek was “talking” to in terms of his spirits in various points in the show, and perhaps I misunderstand. The Spitfire is at East Kirkby today, a fitting tribute to a young pilot lost in the war, but perhaps Derek intended us to think of the B-17 pilot all along. Maybe the psychic channels were confused. Whatever the reason, the account must be compared with the plain facts of the accident. Now there is probably someone out there who thinks “typical debunker, hiding behind supposed ethical issues to make up critiques.” If you do think I would stoop that low (and I must say I LIKE Derek as a person, whatever I think of his mediumship), here you go. The plane was Spitfire Mk.Vb BL655 FJ – B  Go check for yourselves what I assert.

And yes, I really do have ethical qualms about naming the alleged spirit communicators on a TV show. The problem of course is that without doing so, the evidence is simply non-existent. I’m sure MH often handled these things with tact and sensitivity, but on at least one occasion I felt they got it badly wrong (in another episode).  Whatever one feels, I’m not going to take any chances, as I must live with my own conscience, and feel better safe than sorry.

There is of course far more one could say about the nature of the alleged spirit communications, what conclusions one could draw from them, and so forth. I do not intend to pursue that here, because much of it could refer to any episode. Perhaps I will discuss it in a future blog post. Instead I will concentrate on what to me was the more interesting “third act”, by my arbitrary division of the programme.

ACT 3: The Vigil.

The team soon finds itself on the actual vigil. This begins with  a bang – well several of hem actually. Loud banging noises are clearly heard on the soundtrack. What are they? Phil mentions the possibility of the wind striking the aerodrome, but nope this sounds — metallic? Then Karl runs in, with the owners grandson Jonathan.  They explain they have seen the apparition of the officer wearing his cap outside, looking towards one of the bombers! The mysterious banging is quickly forgotten, as Karl takes the crew out, and explains what happened.

I’d encourage the interested reader to watch this scene carefully. It seems the two of them outside both saw the same thing, though curiously Jonathan reports seeing a large “orb first”, that then becomes the apparition. I’m reminded of the opinion expressed by a psychic on MHL4 that “orbs are the first stages of a spirit manifestation” – not an opinion I tend to share, being inclined strongly to believe orbs are nothing but artefacts of digital camera processing. There are plenty of sites these days that explain perfectly normally orbs:  however hang on, Jonathan was not as far as I can tell looking through a camera? So what did he see? A ball of light? A mist? Or was he looking through Karl’s viewfinder? Whatever happens the image seems to resolve in to a black silhouette of a pointing figure – was this just a shadow, or something more?

This takes me back to when we were filming for MHL4, as “overnighters”. I was camped out at Woodchester Mansion (with permission), and was standing in the very early hours alone near the side of the building when I suddenly saw what looked like three very tall grey robed figures staring at me. Shadows? Bushes seen in the darkness? Tired eyes? I walked away, rubbed my eyes and returned. Bushes I think, and looking from different angles suggested I was right, even if I could not recreate the illusion.. Hard to say – but the original vision had looked like something from an M.R.James tale, or Swinburne’s dark ladies. Maybe something like this befell Karl and Jonathan: or maybe they actually saw a spook, or … Actually, who knows? The problem is the apparitional sighting does not sound like many I have read about in the literature, but it could be genuine. Bizarrely no one seems all that interested. They never do on MH, when an actually apparition is supposedly seen. I have no idea why!

Derek then asks for more noise, because according to him spirits are greatly concerned with demonstrating their presence to us, and providing evidence for their survival of death. On cue, the banging starts up again.

Then it gets really odd. Jonathan the owners grandson starts to “burn up” — apparently actually experiencing a physiological temperature increase, well at least of his surface temperature. His forehead feels hot to the touch. He feels unwell, and appears a little distressed. Derek “confirms” by touch the temperature increase, but as an ex-nurse I’d say this is harder than it sounds.  Maybe the lad was feverish, or suffering some other affliction – acute embarrassment? I dunno!

We are suddenly distracted by a couple of pebbles apparently thrown or fallen from (through?) the roof – a common alleged paranormal phenomenon — but before we learn more, things get weirder. Karl appears, announcing he has the same kind of symptoms as Jonathan – a burning sensation, in Karl’s case limited to his left arm. Do ghosts emit some kind of irritant energy?I rather doubt it, yet you could speculate thus, and think that Karl would from what I can make out have had his left side to the apparition which was by Jonathan when they saw it: or you could suspect lighter fluid as someone mentioned! Or it could be auto-suggestion, a somatic effect. Once again we know nothing. Everyone was distracted by the pebbles, and anything could have happened. The problem with a fraud hypothesis is that Jonathan would have had to be in on it – I find that inherently absurd. If Karl faked things that blatantly with outsiders, he would have been exposed and court very quickly. These things also upset Yvette – which I think Karl would be loathe to do, unless she was in on it. Yet Yvette seems genuine in every way here.  Nope, I have little idea what is going on…

Yvette Fielding

Yvette at East Kirkby — Sky.com image.

Derek then comes up with something almost more extraordinary than the phenomena by way of explanation. He suggest that pilots who died in flaming aircraft wrecks may be trying to make their mode of passing known, by some form of telepathy. This left me speechless! I really don’t know what to say about that, so I will leave it. I have seen a medium seemingly throttled (not by me, despite my well known feeling about psychics I hasten to add!) in a room where a century before a lady hanged herself, and I guess the idea is similar, but really this one is just mind blowing! :D Derek says these are the things spirits will do to prove themselves to us? OK, I think I’d prefer to doubt…

I really must get on to some outstanding work, and other things, so I will summarise quickly the end of the episode. The team all split up again, and Karl, John Dibley and Stuart see strange lights in the Control Tower. A door closes, seemingly on its own.  Everyone else has nothing occur to them. It seems phenomena cluster round Karl, except for the stones. Dawn breaks and Ciaran O Keeffe is wheeled out in a VT insert, after reviewing the footage, and says how “fantastic” it was, and how it looked like “genuine phenomena”, before adding some realistic and reasonable sceptical caveats.  And then it’s over, and we are left wondering, was it real? What really happened?

Well it is I am told a really good episode of Most Haunted, and despite my short attention span I guess I enjoyed it. Please do comment, especially if you were actually there! I certainly watched it open mouthed at times, and hope my few rather scatty and half-baked comments have amused. I was also amazed when writing this to discover Yvette is the mother of Will Sweeny, Harry Styles of One Direction‘s old bandmate!

Anyway, I may return to review other episodes in the future, but for now all I can say is  “don’t have nightmares” ;)

cj x

Returning to my blog

Posted in Uninteresting to others whitterings about my life by Chris Jensen Romer on May 7, 2013

Hullo all!

I have had a pretty painful few months, with a dental problem that defied easy treatment and eventually rendered me constantly ill and miserable. I have rather lost the will to write for some months, and have been focussing on a huge research effort in reading the poltergeist literature, interspersed with some writing of freeform games and keeping up my commitments to the Ars Magica rpg. I have dome other things as well of course – designing and playing boardgames, arguing on forums in sporadic bursts, and being fairly busy, but I have not really been “with it”. (To be fair I did find time to post so far seven episodes of my Ars Magica RPG podcast Arcane Connection).

Last week I was fortunate enough to finally have the long awaited operation, and am now recovering well, All is good: I received excellent care from the NHS, and feel much much better. I went home and saw my folks, enjoyed being driven round my beloved Suffolk, and had a few new thoughts on the vanishing house mystery. I’m doing OK. and now I am back at my computer, and planning to start blogging again.

Anyway I thought I’d just say hello as it has been a while, and hope to be in touch with you all soon.

all the best

cj x

Is it time to give up on “Skepticism”?

Today I’m recovering from a rather unpleasant patch of illness that has left me drained, tired and at times irritable — and has prevented me posting the following thoughts for over a week. As I can’t see anyone caring anyway, the following post can be seen as a sort of note to self — but hopefully in future rows I can refer people here. I was awaiting the chance to read Daniel Loxton’s piece on scepticism – I often agree with him on much – but in the end have seized the opportunity to write my own thoughts here. I shall adopt a short, simple and hopefully clear style, rather than my usual one.

So, I don’t want to be called a “skeptic” any more. Or even a “sceptic”, though I think I prefer that, it having the advantage of being spelt correctly in the British English I speak. Of course, if you go to the Greek — but either way, the issue is sceptic does not work for me. I even think it’s potentially harmful. We might need to lose it.

I know a bit about ghosts. I know people experience ghosts. I’m still fairly ambivalent about what ghost experiences represent and whether science can currently explain them. (I think not all).  I am therefore surely not a sceptic?: I am open to “paranormal” beliefs.

Or am I? Skip back to 2006 when I joined the JREF forum, Randi’s place. People were just as belligerent and rude there back then as today (and some, indeed many, just as ace) and I soon ended up trying to explain that I saw Scepticism as a methodology,  a critical process of investigating facts and assessing evidence, rather than a simple process of nay saying. I argued many posters at the JREF were a priori skeptics” – that is that they knew say the paranormal was all bunk, therefore there was no need to address paranormal claims. (And such opinions still appear there today). APS, a priori skepticism can be defended as a tactic, but is irrational (in the technical sense) as an actual worldview.

I guess I had best defend that last statement. OK, imagine tomorrow we prove that some phenomena that occurs in paranormal books – take Giant Squid  as that happened – really exists. Giant squid were staples of 70′ paranormal books. Therefore to APS they can not be real because they are/were paranormal. Now you can presumably if you are an a priori skeptic move things from the “paranormal” to the “real” category — but how remains rather obscure, because once you allow that it removes any justification for the APS of paranormal claims in the first place.  Luckily most people who adopt APS are not concerned with epistemology or consistency, only in sneering at anyone who lacks their extreme faith-based beliefs. (I’m sure I don’t have to explain why APS is faith based?)

So enough of APS: it is still a minority position. Most sceptics I spoke to agreed with my 2006 definition of scepticism as a process: a way of looking at the world. Now I spent a lot of 2008-2010 reading philosophy of science, as I kept finding myself puzzled by things I experienced in sceptical circles (people used “rationalist” to mean something other than “argument based on deduction, not sense-observation” for example — and they used “empirical” to include mathematical proofs which are not empirical but rationalist, as well as conflating “rational” and “true” and “irrational” with “false”. I was irritated at times by what seemed to be the exuberance and bull headed self confidence of people who thought they were clever, yet often struck me as not actually knowing what they were talking about. Rather than fight over misappropriation of philosophical language, words can change their meanings and usage after all, I however noted something quite clear —

There seemed little difference between a process sceptic (or methodological scepticism) and normal scientific methodologies.

Yes I really did just write that in red bold. :D Methodological Scepticism and Science are one and the same thing. If you disagree with me, as I’m sure someone must, then please do comment, and tell me how they differ. Both begin by asking questions, and usually involve attempting to falsify a hypothesis. Both involve ending up making a judgement regarding the strength of the evidence, and if the research supported or opposed certain conclusions. Science like Scepticism can be performed by people irrespective of their personal ideological baggage – even  Richard Dawkins has been able to perform science successfully despite his clearly strong ideological biases. 

In process Scepticism paranormal belief is perfectly compatible with said scepticism, if that is what the empirical evidence leads you to. And hence the strong scepticism among many spiritualist circles, and large numbers of scientists I think who sit in such circles – they have a very anti-faith and evidence based mindset, and spiritualism provides what appears to be empirical proof, or so its adherents profess.

Now I’ve bolded that last paragraph cos I want to look at it more. I’m not a spiritualist, and immediately my instinct is sod “process scepticism”/”scientific methodology”, they are all deluded or being defrauded. Yet I immediately stop myself – because that claim is absolutely unfounded. I have certainly seen fake mediums – and ones who were convinced of their own abilities too – but I certainly have not seen enough to know they were all fakes, even if the Problem of Induction allowed one to make such grandiose claims. I have certainly know enough intelligent critical people who think they have encountered empirical evidence of the persistence after death of loved ones to realise my reaction is emotional, and far from sceptical.

As a sceptic I should do the work: conduct some experiments, investigate the evidence, and not draw conclusions beyond what the evidence permits. To allow “scientific cultures” sneering contempt for mediumship to influence my thinking is clearly seriously unscientific; and when I turn to the arguments most commonly brought against studying such things as impossible, I find most of them are of the category “belief claims for a materialist philosophical worldview” rather than actually anything to do with Science.

If Scepticism is as I propose simply synonymous with Science, it must remain as neutral as possible in framing the questions and conducting the research. If Scepticism is not Science, but instead something more akin to the philosophical defence (apologetics) of materialist, reductionist, and eliminative philosophies then it should be honest that it is that – faith based teaching, a form of apologetics, and state so.

So to go back to those spiritualists — I must adopt an open minded approach as far as I can, given my prejudices, to the phenomena. I must attempt to be objective. If strong belief either way is allowed to interfere with my reading of the data, my science will be flawed. I will want to render the whole research as transparent and objective as possible.

So why disguise my Scientific investigation as something else, dressing it up as “sceptical”? If that term says nothing about my final position (which will be evidence based) why use the misleading “sceptic”  term? I’m assuming that no one thinks one can scientifically investigate spiritualism’s reality with the conclusion already written – that would be appalling science – so why take on a label that seems to suggest one is doing exactly such a thing?

Furthermore, imagine you think you have seen a ghost, or a bigfoot, or somesuch. You look in the phonebook – there is the local woo group with their YouTube video series, or the local SCEPTIC. Who will you go to? I doubt it will be the sceptic – even if you are unsure about exactly what you experienced, sceptic implies someone who won’t believe you.

Science is methodologically rigorous, critical thinking, and evidence based. Why do we need to add a Skeptic label?

We don’t. I suggest “Skeptics” stop trying to promote “scepticism”, and promote simpler easier to sell virtues, Truth and Science. No one will react badly to you promising to use science and objectively look for the truth. They may even support you.

I can only think of four reasons why the term Sceptic may be used…

1. It may be employed by people who feel insecure about their credentials for doing science. Don’t. You do not need to  wear a white coat or have a PhD in a Scientific discipline to do science. If you aspire to do science, people will help you. Choose a simple research topic, think of an experiment, and try and ask a few folks to check out your methodology before you start. Make sure your ethics are good. And publish your results, if only on the web :)

2. It might be employed by people who think researching say ESP or Lake Monsters without setting out clearly they think it is all bunk will damage their university careers and funding. If so I sympathise, but your publications can speak for themselves, and I think the contrary implication that you are researching topics with your mind already made up as to the outcomes might do you rather more damage in much of academia than a predilection for studying slightly offbeat things.

3. It might be employed by people who genuinely believe there is a difference between sceptical and scientific methodologies, and that the former is superior. If such a position is held, please do explain it to me.

and finally 4. Some people may like calling themselves skeptics because it sounds clever. I have often found skeptics to be fairly intellectually self-assured.   I don’t think advocating Science is any less clever though.

So seriously, this whole skeptic thing, it has got so much baggage attached. Stuff it. You find great papers and poor papers in the journals, and whether written by sceptics or believers is irrelevant. Evidence and sound analysis — good science – is what matters at the end of the day.

cj x

1953: The Great (Not So) East Anglian Flood

Posted in Debunking myths, History, Uninteresting to others whitterings about my life by Chris Jensen Romer on January 31, 2013

If you asked people what the worst natural disaster to befall Britain in the 20th century was (baring disease epidemics like the 1919 flu), most people will look at you and probably have no idea. It was actually in 1953 when a Spring tide combined with low atmospheric pressure led to an incredible storm and flood, and left 30,000 people homeless, and 307 dead on land, and over 224 at sea in the UK.  Where I grew up it was known as the Great East Anglian Flood; however in the Netherlands they call it the Watersnoodramp, and Wikipedia calls it the North Sea Flood of 1953. Closer, but even that does not really cover the scale of the disaster – 28 died in Scotland, and the MV Princess Victoria a ferry doing railway duty on the  Stranraer to Larne crossing sank with loss of 133 lives, with just 44 saved. Across the Low Countries and UK, over 2000 people died. 13,000 cattle drowned: a thousand miles of coastline flooded, and in modern terms did £941,000,000 in damages – that is £50 million pounds in 1953 money converted by purchasing power. This was nothing compared the Netherlands – there around 1,800 people perished.


The first casualties were on the MV Princess Victoria — a “roll on roll off” ferry. It went down around 2 in the afternoon, having been battered by the storms. The navy tried to reach it with HMS Contest and the lifeboat Jeannie Spiers; a few were saved by the heroism of the lifeboat crew of the Samuel Kelly and two merchant ships in the area. It was a day of heroes, and the valour of radio operator  David Broadfoot who remained at his post till the very end sending the SOS was marked by his posthumous George Cross. Notably Captain James Feguson was last seen as the ship sank standing on the bridge, saluting: he went down with his ship in line with naval tradition, and all of the other officers were lost.

Despite the potential to notify those on the coast as the storm beat round Scotland, warnings were not passed on  – many port offices were unmanned on a Saturday night, and the radio did not broadcast late enough. Some telephoned warnings did save lives, but everyone reacted as if it was a local problem. At least today modern communications technology would instantly notify almost everyone as to the impending threat.

Sixty years ago tonight. If the sinking of the Titanic was a defining moment in my grandmother Alice Bentley’s childhood, the Great East Anglian Flood is a memory  that my parents told me of.  They married in 1952 – I was not born for another 17 years, but they were living in Bury then. The memories of ’53 have conflated with a later East Anglian flood, probably ’64,  when the Lark Valley flooded deeply apparently, as did many streets in town. I can’t imagine that had much to do with tidal surge — it has to have been rain run off, and one day I am going to go and find the Bury Free Press archive and take a look at the photos. Eastgate Street was flooded – and my father was amused by stories that he had been seen rescuing people in the road in a rowboat; it is the kind of thing one can imagine him doing. Well, he is a Viking! However, back to 1953…

There were heroes, like Reis Leming, one of those “oversexed overpaid and over ‘ere” US airmen who were part of East Anglian life for so. Reis died last year; but his heroism that night lives on.  It  is sad that Reis, who saved so many despite not being able to swim, could not be here for the 60th anniversary. All kinds of folk stories arose about the flood – but in Bury the effects were inconvenience and amazement, but not terrible tragedy as on the East Coast, thirty miles away. One of Alice’s friend’s husbands died;  I recall sitting drinking tea in St. John’s Place and her telling me how she lost her husband, Mr Laytin that night, washed away and drowned near Felixstowe if I recall correctly. He was a coastguard or port official – I’m hazy on the details some thirty years on, but it was an awful thing to hear.

For all the stories I heard growing up, my knowledge of the event is limited to several articles and a single book I read years ago, that focussed almost entirely in the East Anglian aspects of this “perfect storm”. It is to my mind a very local tragedy — and everyone regards it this way. So despite some wonderful coverage today (and a decade ago) in the press, which seems to render any commentary from me redundant – after all witnesses like my parents are still alive and able to tell what they saw that night — I thought I’d comment here.  If you want to see what it looked like, Pathe News have some footage here : http://www.britishpathe.com/video/east-coast-gale-disaster

It was not “a very local” disaster at all – it was a national disaster. Yet the scale of the losses on Canvey Island down in the Thames Estuary, which was devastated by the flooding with a huge loss of homes, was just as severe as in East Anglia, and the losses in Scotland and Lincolnshire grim too. So why is it recalled as such a local matter?  This is what interests me — I actually wondered if there was an intentional cover up, given the late and ineffective government response, or whether it was just the local press primarily reported the story which was therefore perceived everywhere as a local matter, and for some reason the London Press played it down? This was post-war Austerity Britain – and the Coronation and Festival of Britain demonstrated a “move on, keep cheerful” (I nearly quoted that bloody poster) attitude that natural disaster would have been at odds with.

I think that is probably the truth — people were sick of doom and gloom, and while the disaster was noted, to London it was (despite killing one person) a fairly minor thing. In Lincolnshire, the Western Isles, the Hebrides, the Orkneys, East Anglia and The Thames Estuary as well as across in the Netherlands it was very big news, the papers never reported the big picture, and so it has gone down in folk memory as a local affair. Perhaps it is for the best, for such a perfect storm should occur again, maybe not for centuries, but inevitably, and then we will see if the flood defences built in the aftermath really do work…

cj x

Re-Investigating Un-Haunted Houses

Posted in Debunking myths, Paranormal, Science by Chris Jensen Romer on January 23, 2013


Eight couples who had never experienced any ‘haunting’ activity in their houses and had no reason to expect they would experience ‘ghosts’ were asked by the author to keep a diary for one calendar month from 17th October – 17th November 2012 in which they recorded unusual experiences. 62.5% of the participant couples recruited completed the task and submitted the diaries for analysis. Of the five participant couples who submitted diaries, four reported at least some phenomena that met the criteria, and one couple reported no unusual activity at all. The study was a larger scale replication of Houran and Lange (1996). My findings are compared with those of the original study which featured only one couple.

UPDATE: Within 20 minutes of the first draft of this paper going live on my blog I was contacted by one of the missing research participants and was able to locate the couples data which had been submitted at the time but by Facebook message rather than e-mail. I have therefore revised the figures to take in to account the new material. It had no impact on the overall findings, fortunately.

Introduction: Houran & Lange’s 1996 Study

James Houran and Rense Lange have been the authors of a number of innovative studies in parapsychology. In this 1996 paper they were exploring if hauntings and in particular it would seem poltergeist cases were explicable in terms of a self-reinforcing-psychological contagion hypothesis. In essence the idea is that once one notices unusual anomalies in one’s home, and has ones attention drawn to it, more such anomalies are noticed. The paper is often cited (for example Wiseman 2011; Wiseman 2011b) as it provides an elegant psychological explanation for purported “hauntings”. The original paper is based on the experiences of one couple, mature students, who were requested by the researchers to keep a 30 day diary of unusual events in their home which was in no way believed to be ‘haunted’ before the study began. The small number of participants (one diary) troubled me: it seems dangerous to draw too many conclusions form a single innovative pilot study like this, and I could find no replications, yet the paper is repeatedly cited by sceptics without mention of this limitation. I therefore decided to replicate the study, on a larger scale.

The basic idea behind Houran and Lange’s paper appears simple. Imagine one day you come home and find your books are symmetrically stacked in the living room. You don’t recall doing it, and your housemate is never so neat! Later on, an egg starts to fry on your kitchen worktop, and then you hear an odd voice say “Zuul”. Your attention may now well be extremely focussed upon the weird things happening in your house – you probably approach the fridge with trepidation – and when the cat knocks over a flower vase later and the hot water system causes knocking in the pipes, you are only to quick to jump to the “ghost did it” conclusion. In short, ghosts are by this hypothesis merely a narrative we create to explain little mysteries (anomalies) in our daily lives. When my door keys go missing, I search and search and eventually find them on the shelf where I thought I had looked first, I may be more willing to blame a spook than my poor perception.

In the same year I suggested something similar (Romer; 1996); what did not occur to me was that such observations of purportedly paranormal phenomena would eventually die out. Houran and Lange argue this based upon

“the assumptions that (1) the environment provides a stable supply of events that can be interpreted as paranormal and (2) the probability of noticing an additional anomaly is directly proportional to the number of anomalies already noticed as well as the number of remaining potential anomalies. Under these assumptions, it can be shown that the cumulative frequency distribution of perceived anomalous events should follow the familiar logistic curve.” (Houran and Lange 1996: my emphasis)

So you notice something odd going on; you start to look for it as your attention becomes focussed on the “ghost” – that much seems straightforward. However I am slightly confused by the “number of remaining possible anomalies.” This implies there are a limited number of such events in the environment, and eventually you will reach a point where you have observed most potential anomalies, causing the number of new experiences observed to tail off. I am puzzled as to how Houran and Lange came to this conclusion. If perceptual mistakes give rise to some anomalies, and others are simple misunderstanding of mundane events, I see no reason for them to “run out” as suggested. What limits the “number of remaining anomalies”? Yet this is an important aspect of the paper, even if not explained within it. As has been pointed out, poltergeist type events usually run out if steam in a fairly short period – the “logistic curve” Houran and Lange hypothesise would explain this within their psychological explanation. Here is the graph of the cumulative experiences that were reported by one couple in their diary study. As we can see it neatly fits the predicted logistic curve.


Yet without understanding why the potential anomalies in any given environment (house) are limited in the time period, it is hard for me to understand. Why they predict the classic logistic curve above. I would have predicted an exponential rise in cumulative frequency: the problem is that while this neatly represents reports of ‘actual’ poltergeist cases, which trail off over time, I can’t see why it should be suggested in the first place. What limits the potential anomalies?

Replicating The 1996 Paper: A New Diary Study

Given the fact that people citing the original 1996 paper have at times drawn rather strong conclusions from this single diary study with only one couple involved, I decided to attempt a replication. I intended to recruit ten couples as participants, though that proved impossible. I wanted to see if the couples reported similar experiences to those in the original study, and if the puzzling logistic curve was borne out in the new data.

The Participants

Recruitment was via volunteers through the authors Facebook account. 8 couples living in the UK volunteered to keep the diaries, and then again two days before the end of the study. Five couples mailed me completed diaries. No reason was given by the other three couples for failure to complete (though simple forgetfulness is one possibility). The couples were all aged between 30 and 50 years, though I did not ask for precise ages, marital status, or other personal information. Two of the couples have strong interests in the paranormal, and two in religion. This was not intentional selection, nor even a feature of the couples who initially responded to my request for participants, but it may be a reason why they stuck with the study till the end.

Of the four couples who submitted diaries, one had experienced nothing unusual which met the criteria at all in the time period, and a second had a relevant experience while staying in a place other than their own home (discussed briefly later.) So from the original eight couples, five participated and three had experiences that met the criteria. The fact three did not is in itself of interest. They were certainly aware of the study – Couple C reported several events which met the criteria, but which occurred while they were away from their home, hence were excluded. Couple D reported that no such experiences occurred in the time frame, though one partner had experienced anomalous experiences in the past. Couple E had one very striking experience.

The Diaries

Those who expressed an interest in participating were sent the following instructions (along with some introductory text and contact numbers for myself. No one called during the study). The instructions, and the 8 categories were based on those employed in the 1996 study – the categories they employed derived from an Lange paper on ‘Contextual mediation of perceptions in hauntings and poltergeist-like experiences’. (Lange et al. 1996) I attempted to replicate as faithfully as possible the original research. Here are the instructions I emailed out to the prospective participants.

“For the next month, until November 17th, please pay particular attention to any unusual occurrences in your residence. These occurrences may be emotional feelings, physical sensations, or environmental events in your residence. Please keep detailed and accurate notes, even if you know or believe to know what caused the occurrences to happen. I will need the gender and age of adult occupants, and who had each experience noting. If you have children please do not discuss this with them. I have no desire to upset children! The types of unusual experiences I am interested include but are not limited to

* Visual – seeing things not there

* Audio – hearing stuff with no known cause *

Tactile – the feeling of being touched with no obvious reason

* Olfactory – strange smells

* Sensed “presences”

* Intense emotion for no apparent cause beyond that you might normally experience

* Object movements with no apparent cause

* erratic function of equipment.

At the end of the month I would like you to send me the file with your notes. Obviously the experiment requires the full consent and participation of your house mates. I’m asking for volunteers on my Facebook because I want people who I can trust and know. My final report will be anonymized to prevent personal details being shared, and will credit you by name if you wish in the credits. You can end participation at any time.

You can always contact me if necessary on (numbers removed). This is a very important piece of research and I’ll be hugely grateful if you can assist.”

The Phenomena Reported

Only two couples (labelled A and B for ease of reference) provided phenomena that occurred in their own homes. Couple C reported phenomena that occurred to their car, and a phenomena that met the criteria but occurred while she was working elsewhere overnight in the period in question, and while of considerable interest this had to be excluded as not occurring in their own home from this study: however it was still of great interest. Couple D reported no phenomena. Couple A reported 19 events, couple B 10, Couple E 1 – compared with the 1996 couple where in the slightly shorter period of 30 days (as opposed to 32 days in this study) 22 events were reported.

In this study the five couples reported an average of 6 experiences that met the criteria and were in their homes, but of course 50% of the participants reported none – so the actual figures are 0,0, 1, 10,19. Only on the 7th November did three events occur to the same couple on the same day: No more than 3 events are reported on any given day. Halloween (October 31st) gave us only one event – which rather knocks traditional beliefs in this respect!

The nature of the phenomena can be classified by the eight categories used in the original study. There was however a new category that emerged strongly. “Sense presences” were inferred by both couples by the behaviour of there cats seemingly staring at things not there and behaving unusually. Given that this is not a “sensed presence” by a human percipient, but certainly can be seen as building towards the narrative of a psychologically induced haunting, I included these in a new 9th category (which might be called Unusual Pet Behaviour in any replication). The single human “sensed presence” was of a deceased cat, sensed by the owner on November 3rd, and appears in the Sensed presences category as the percipient was human. A visual experience reported was also of a cat where no real cat was; this was from the other couple.

Phenomena Couple A Couple B Couple E Total (Percentage)
Visual 0 2 0 2 (6.6%)
Auditory 5 1 0 6 (20%)
Tactile 2 0 0 2 (6.6%)
Olfactory 1 0 1 1 (3.3%)
Sensed “presences” 1 0 0 1 (3.3%)
Intense emotion 0 2 0 2 (6.6%)
Object movements 0 8 0 8 (26.6%)
Equipment Erratic 1 4 0 5 (16.6.2%)
Cat Behaviour 1 2 0 3 (10%)

One of the issues when tabulating the data was what to call an “experience”. For example, on one experience a cat was heard to jump on the sofa, and the black tail briefly glimpsed out of the corner of the eye – and no cat was there. (A very mundane common hallucination, any cat owner must be used to). As the two events followed each other in quick succession, I recorded them as 2 events – auditory and visual. However for a strange noise heard coming from a bookcase one night, I recorded it as one experience, despite it recurring a few minutes later. Such subjective judgements are unavoidable in dealing with diary studies.

So as we can see “un-haunted” houses can appear surprisingly haunted once we pay attention to the anomalies, just as the 1996 paper said, and as I argued in my (also) 1996 piece a cumulative narrative can be composed from non-associated and presumably non-paranormal occurrences. (We will return to this seemingly solid conclusion later however.) What is also clear is that while there are commonalities the specifics of our two haunts vary considerably, with Couple B reporting object movements and classic poltergeist “small object displacement” or “jottle” effects while Couple A report significantly more strange noises and auditory experiences. So we appear to have a general confirmation of expectancy/priming effects and focussing awareness leading to the development of a ‘ghostly’ narrative – though it is important to note neither couple actually reported their experiences in those terms, and both were aware that the experiment led to them paying attention to the anomalies obviously. Just to confound matter further Couple B included with their diary a query as to whether I was familiar with Houran and Lange (1996), the paper that I was attempting to replicate. While I trust them obviously this could colour their dairy, as they were clearly aware of the hypothesis I was testing. In this day and age finding “naive” subjects for any experiment is increasingly difficult while meeting the needs of informed consent!

The Logistic Curve

So what of Houran and Lange’s hypothesis that the experiences would follow a logistic curve? Let us firstly remind ourselves of what this looks like in the original study.

Image Now let us look at our Couple A’s cumulative experiences, plotted on a similar graph.


As I currently lack the software to plot the logistic curve all I can note is this looks more like a straight line distribution to me: it levels off , but if we just plot the experiences the effect of the curve is far from apparent. I see less evidence of the purported “running out of anomalies” effect, and given the tedium of keeping up a diary study, it is just as possible the whole logistic curve tells us more about the enthusiasm of research subjects for participation in a project than the nature of hauntings.


Let us move to Couple B. Here are there results, presented the same way. Firstly graphed as in the original paper.

Image .

Again, despite the levelling off in the middle, there is no resemblance to the logistic curve. I am fairly sure that if tested the relationship between the observed values and the expected values would be non-significant. Just to be consistent, here are just the cumulative experiences depicted.


Again we see as I hypothesised a fairly straight line progression. The evidence does not seem to support a logistic curve, and hence does not support a “running out of anomalies” factor. There is no apparent reason why in 32 days the effect should tail off – which is an important criticism of the idea that it explains why poltergeist events are short-lived and episodic, if the psychological hypothesis theory is correct. Let us finally combine all three couples results (with single experience of couple E included) and examine them. unhaunted6

The Logistic Curve is nowhere to be seen. Our couples did not “run out of anomalies” – they continued to find new odd occurrences to remark upon. The very nature of a diary study where the research participants may strain to find things to comment upon to “do their homework” and feel they are justifying their participation may lead to this result, but then one would have expected it to show up in the original study.

Comparing the Experiences

The original paper gives relatively little information about the actual phenomena reported. Equipment behaving erratically was the most common experience, with 16 of the 22 reported events, followed by 5 counts of object movement and one subjective experience. So in the 1996 study the phenomena classes described were far more limited than in this replication. Furthermore it is surprising to read in Houran and Lange (1996)

“Further, in agreement with the focussing effect described by Roll (1977), three out of the five objects which were found to have moved were the same, and all of the erratic functioning involved the same piece of equipment.” (emphasis mine)

If I had the same piece of equipment malfunction 16 times, I would suspect that there was something broken with it, not spooks. 72.7% of the phenomena reported in the original study were malfunctions of this one piece of equipment, the nature of which is not specified. I find this quite incredible. The pattern does not repeat in this replication – all object moved were unique, and Couple B’s 4 cases of erratically behaving machinery only involved two the same, both involving the lounge lamp, several days apart. There is no evidence to support the kind of effect seen in Roll’s poltergeist cases as cited in the new study.

UPDATE: re-reading Richard Wiseman’s Skeptical Inquirer piece gives additional information cited as from the paper, but not contained within the paper.

“Reporting the results in the paper “Diary of Events in a Thoroughly Unhaunted House,” he noted that the couple reported an amazing twenty-two weird events, including the inexplicable malfunctioning of their telephone, their name being muttered by a ghostly presence, and the strange movement of a souvenir voodoo mask along a shelf.” (Wiseman 2011b)

I am not sure what Richard’s source is, presumably the author’s themselves: however of the ‘amazing’ 22 experiences 16 (72.7%) involved the telephone malfunctioning.

Nonetheless the replication provides greater diversity and similarly impressive numbers in some of the 5 diaries. While the original study found a significant case for a ‘focal person’ as often found in poltergeist-like cases, who witnessed 16 of the phenomena while by themselves (72.7%) no such effect is apparent in the replication. It is impossible based on the ambiguity of the records regarding who exactly was present or first discovered an object had moved to tabulate exactly, but the experiences are generally framed from the author’s perspective (in both cases a female) but seem to have involved and been witnessed by their partners (both male) on several occasions, and in some instances the males was the percipient. Again, an effect found by Houran and Lange and common to the case history of poltergeists does not appear in this replication.

The greater diversity of experiences reported seems to me to strengthen the case for a psychological contagion effect, but it is important to note that a) the participants did not come to the conclusion they were being haunted and b) for those familiar with the Census of Hallucination (1894) research, I do not think any of the experiences reported would meet the exclusion criteria used there: object movements were not included in that study. To compare these experiences with say the witnesses at Enfield (Playfair 1980) or Cardiff (Fontana, 1991) or Andover (Colvin 2008) appears unreasonable. These experiences may well lead some people to believe their house is haunted, but with the possible exception of the object movements (none of which were witnessed moving, and for 60% of which the participants offered likely mundane causes) none of them are likely to cause resort to paranormal explanations.

So What Have We Learned?

The replication has provided significantly stronger evidence for the psychological contagion case than the original paper does, in that it shows that a wider range of “paranormal-type” experiences can occur in everyday life, with the potential to be misinterpreted and develop in to a ghost story narrative. Yet we must note several things.

Firstly, the phenomena involved would not I fear withstand an objective external investigator. The participants themselves repeatedly “explain away” the phenomena – after all, as in the original study, they were instructed to report such things even if “even if you know or believe to know what caused the occurrences to happen.” Secondly, the study may simply show the priming effect of participating in the experiment.There is no reason to think the participants would have thought very much if at all about what occurred, let alone ascribed it to spooks, if they had not been participating in the diary study. It is important to note that 40% of those who responded, and quite possibly the other three participants who did not submit diaries, experienced no notable phenomena. If the three who had expressed willingness to participate but never got back to me had noticed anything similar occurring, you might have expected them to respond.

Yet I have no doubt that life is full of tiny anomalies: during the day it has taken me to write up this replication my partner has texted to say she had her sat nav come on while lying on her bedroom floor and make her jump by telling her to “turn right”; I myself thought I saw Cuddles my black cat sitting on top of a cupboard, but on looking again he was not there, and was still sleeping in my bedroom when I returned to the computer. Neither of us have jumped to the conclusion we are haunted: but I can see how it could well happen, and I think the psychological contagion hypothesis requires much more study, and am thankful to Houran and Lange for their pioneering and important work. Houran and Lange (1996) wrote

‘This resulting cumulative frequency distribution of event times closely follows a logistic curve… thereby providing strong support for our hypothesis that perceptions of anomalous events are an artefact of attentional contagion. This finding implies that explanations of anomalous events need not invoke such untestable notions as “discarnate agents” or “recurrent spontaneous psycho-kinesis”.’

This study found no evidence for the logistic curve – and the author is still confused as to why it was invoked, as it appears to be difficult to justify as a hypothesis. While the replication was relatively small scale, it was of course still larger in scope than the original study, and leads to the question as to why no one appears to have attempted to replicate it in the intervening sixteen years given the elegance and simplicity of the research design. Widely cited, and fascinating in its implications, the Houran and Lange study opens up new vistas for research in to people’s interpretation of ambiguous stimuli, but one must question whether it really demonstrates all that some sceptical proponents have made out.

Chris Jensen Romer, January 2013


Note: I would to acknowledge the kind assistance of Tom Ruffles of the SPR in helping me locate articles used in writing this piece. Participant Bryan Saunders has kindly agreed to be waive his identity, and I would like to thank him and Barbara for their faithfully maintaining their diary throughout the month and all their help. It is always pleasing to have some non-anonymous participants, as it it lowers the potential for fraud (I did not make up the results, but you don’t know that). :) I would also like to thank the SPR for their research grant support of my ongoing research.


Colvin, B (2008) The Andover Case: A responsive poltergeist, Journal of the Society for Psychical Research, 72, p. 1-20. Fontana, D (1991) A responsive poltergeist: A case from South Wales, Journal of the Society for Psychical Research, 57, pp. 385-402.

Houran, J. and Lange, R. (1996), Diary of events in a thoroughly unhaunted house, Perceptual & Motor Skills, 82, 499-502

Lange R, Houran, J, Harte T.M. & Havens R.A. (1996) Conceptual mediation of perception in hauntings and poltergeist -like experiences, Perceptual & Motor Skills, 82, 755-762

Lange, R., and J. Houran. 1997. Context-induced paranormal experiences: Support for Houran and Lange’s model of haunting phenomena. Perceptual and Motor Skills 84: 1455–58.

Playfair, Guy Lyon, (1980) This House Is Haunted: the Investigation of the Enfield Poltergeist, Stein & Day, London.

Roll, W.G (1977) Poltergeists in B.B. Wolman (ed) Handbook of Parapsychology, Jefferson, NC; McFarland p.382-413

Romer, C. (1996) The Poverty of Theory: Some Notes on the Investigation of Spontaneous Cases, Journal of the Society for Psychical Research, 61, 161-163

Sidgwick, Eleanor; Johnson, Alice; and others (1894). Report on the Census of Hallucinations, Proceedings of the Society for Psychical Research, 10.

Wiseman R, (2011), Paranormality, Macmillan, London.

Wiseman R, (2011) The Haunted Brain in Skeptical Inquirer 35.5 (available online at http://www.csicop.org/si/show/the_haunted_brain/)


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